Tamer Said Abdelkader, Seo-Na Chang, Tae-Hyun Kim, Juha Song, Dong Su Kim and Jae-Hak Park Exposure time to caffeine affects heartbeat and cell damage-related gene expression of zebrafish Danio rerio embryos at early developmental stages Journal of Applied Toxicology 33
Caffeine has various biological effects. Effect of (100 μM) caffeine on heartbeat, survival and expression of cell damage-related genes were studied. Hatching decreased significantly in caffeine treatment at 60 and 72 hpf. Heartbeat increased significantly at 72 and 96 hpf. Significant up-regulation was found in all tested genes, Bax/Bcl2 ratio, and significant down-regulation in Bcl2. Caffeine exposure, increase heartbeats, stimulates oxidative stress and may trigger apoptosis via a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Use of caffeine harm the human fetus by affecting the cell-damage related genes.
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