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Diana Dias da Silva, Elisabete Silva and Helena Carmo Combination effects of amphetamines under hyperthermia - the role played by oxidative stress Journal of Applied Toxicology 34

Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2889

The impact of hyperthermia on the cytotoxicity of combinations of MDMA and three other amphetamines often co-ingested, d-amphetamine, methamphetamine and 4-methylthioamphetamine, was evaluated. In hyperthermia (40.5 °C), amphetamine mixtures produced deleterious effects, even when individual drugs were combined at negligible concentrations. Mixture effects were accurately predicted by concentration addition model. RNS/ROS production, GSH and ATP depletion and mitochondrial impairment were strongly exacerbated under hyperthermia, emphasizing the potential increased risks of ecstasy intake, especially when hyperthermia occurs concurrently with polydrug abuse.

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