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Iffath A. Ghouri, Allen Kelly, Francis L. Burton, Godfrey L. Smith and Ole Johan Kemi 2-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy enables deeper high-resolution imaging of voltage and Ca2+ in intact mice, rat, and rabbit hearts Journal of Biophotonics 8

Version of Record online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jbio.201300109

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Measurements of membrane voltage and intracellular calcium in intact hearts have only been available from the surface or with low resolution. This article presents protocols for deep, fast, and sub-cellular high-resolution two-photon imaging of single-cell voltage and calcium in physiologically intact hearts that overcome those problems, and demonstrate high fidelity and accuracy compared to conventional methods in hearts from several species.

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