Irena Nastova, Orhideja Grupče, Biljana Minčeva-Šukarova, Servet Turan, Merve Yaygingol, Melih Ozcatal, Violeta Martinovska and Zorica Jakovlevska-Spirovska Micro-Raman spectroscopic analysis of inks and pigments in illuminated medieval old-Slavonic manuscripts Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 43
Micro-Raman spectroscopy was applied in characterisation of inks and pigments used in the text, illuminations and miniatures of two old-Slavonic manuscripts: Vrutok four gospels (13th–14th centuries) and Benche four gospels (16th century). Only four colours/pigments were used in the simple miniature and ornaments in Vrutok book: orpiment, vermilion, organo-copper complex and mixed ink. Much richer palette of pigments was revealed in the Benche book: calcite, gypsum, lead white, yellow ochre, pararealgar/realgar, vermilion, red lead, red ochre, organo-copper complex, malachite, indigo, iron gall ink, carbon black and pure metallic gold.
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