Héctor Morillas, Maite Maguregui, Olivia Gómez-Laserna, Josu Trebolazabala and Juan Manuel Madariaga Characterisation and diagnosis of the conservation state of cementitious materials exposed to the open air in XIX century lighthouses located on the coast of the Basque Country: ‘The case of Igueldo lighthouse, San Sebastian, North of Spain’ Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 43
Raman spectroscopic analysis combined with other analytical techniques allowed to characterise different pathologies affecting the integrity of the cementitious materials. A wide variety of nitrate salts (nitratine, niter and/or nitrocalcite) were identified by means of Raman spectroscopy formed as a consequence of the reaction between ammonium nitrate, coming from seagulls droppings decomposition, and the carbonaceous part of the cementitious materials. Moreover, the dissolved sulphates from the original materials (e.g. gypsum) react with sodium carbonate (coming from the carbonation of original sodium oxide additive) giving rise to sodium sulphate crystallisations.
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