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Ji-long Shi and Tao Li Technical investigation of 15th and 19th century Chinese paper currencies: Fiber use and pigment identification Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 44

Article first published online: 18 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4297

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Hertzberg staining suggests fiber sources from mulberry trees, ramie, paper mulberry trees in three Chinese paper currencies. Raman analysis shows red lead in da ming bao chao (1410–1435 AD) or vermilion in da qing bao chao (1859 AD) and hu bu guan piao (1854–1858 AD) as red pigment, Prussian blue in da qing bao chao and hu bu guan piao, amorphous carbon from soot as black pigment, and calcium carbonate as coating pigment or fillers in da qing bao chao.

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