R. Caballero, C. A. Kaufmann, V. Efimova, T. Rissom, V. Hoffmann and H. W. Schock Investigation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film formation during the multi-stage co-evaporation process Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 21
The correlation between the increasing Cu content and the Na diffusion from the substrate is studied during multi-stage co-evaporation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 onto Mo/float glass. The results suggest an affinity of Na for material phases with a Cu-poor composition. The presence of Cu-Se secondary phases seems not to be necessary in order to achieve grain growth. However, “recrystallization” under Cu-excess is still necessary to achieve high device performances.
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