J. H. C. Hendricks and W. G. J. H. M. van Sark Annual performance enhancement of building integrated photovoltaic modules by applying phase change materials Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 21
The performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules outdoors is negatively influenced by high module temperatures due to irradiation as a result of the negative temperature coefficient of their efficiency. Phase change materials (PCMs) are investigated as an option to decrease photovoltaic module temperature. A simplified heat balance model is used to calculate the extra energy gain of such a PV/PCM system; it is shown that with present day commercially available PCM materials, a moderate increase of up to 3% of the total annual energy output can be expected.
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