Tobias M. Pletzer, Stephan Suckow, Elmar F. R. Stegemann, Horst Windgassen, Derk L. Bätzner and Heinrich Kurz Phosphorus gettering of iron by screen-printed emitters in monocrystalline Czochralski silicon wafers Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 21
We demonstrate single-sided screen-printed emitters in thin Cz-Si wafers with an improved gettering of iron compared with conventional POCl3 emitters. The phosphorus dopant pastes used have to be chosen carefully to provide a sufficiently low emitter shunt resistance and to avoid iron contamination. The [Fe] is determined in a non-destructive way from the minority carrier lifetime obtained by quasi-steady-state photoconductance measurements, down to levels not yet demonstrated for screen-printed emitters. Metastable BSO2i complexes have been transferred into a stable state by light-induced degradation prior to these measurements.
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