Jan Bauer, Dominik Lausch, Horst Blumtritt, Nikolai Zakharov and Otwin Breitenstein Avalanche breakdown in multicrystalline solar cells due to preferred phosphorous diffusion at extended defects Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 21
Avalanche pre-breakdown in multicrystalline solar cells is found to be due to submicron-sized nearly spherical dents in the p–n junction. These dents are assumed to be caused by enhanced diffusion of phosphorous during emitter formation at special crystallographic line defects. In spite of a flat solar cell surface, this phenomenon leads to pre-breakdown due to locally enhanced electric fields even in alkaline textured solar cells, which normally exhibit a flatter surface than acidic textured ones.
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