Annick Anctil, Callie W. Babbitt, Ryne P. Raffaelle and Brian J. Landi Cumulative energy demand for small molecule and polymer photovoltaics Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
The embodied energy has been calculated for 15 new materials used in organic electronics, encompassing a variety of donor, acceptor, and interface compounds. With the use of this new inventory data, the life cycle energy impact of 26 different organic photovoltaic devices comprising single junction and multi-junction architectures has been calculated including bulk heterojunction polymer, planar small molecule, and planar-mixed small molecule. The cumulative energy demand is on average of 50% less than for conventional inorganic photovoltaics, motivating the continued development of both technologies.
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