Budhika G. Mendis, Mervyn D Shannon, Max CJ Goodman, Jon D Major, Richard Claridge, Douglas P. Halliday and Ken Durose Direct observation of Cu, Zn cation disorder in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cell absorber material using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 22
Aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate Cu, Zn cation disorder in Cu2ZnSnS4 by measuring the composition of individual atom columns. A nanoscale composition inhomogeneity is observed with a high concentration of ZnCu+ donors. The spatially fluctuating electrostatic potential gives rise to potential wells in the electronic band structure. Deep potential wells reduce the carrier separation and collection efficiencies of solar cells. Chemically homogeneous Cu2ZnSnS4 material is therefore required for producing high-efficiency devices.
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