Wan-Ching Hsu, Ingrid Repins, Carolyn Beall, Clay DeHart, Bobby To, Wenbing Yang, Yang Yang and Rommel Noufi Growth mechanisms of co-evaporated kesterite: a comparison of Cu-rich and Zn-rich composition paths Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 22
High-temperature co-evaporation is attractive for pursuing high copper zinc tin chalcogenide cell efficiency, as it affords the real-time manipulation of elemental deposition rates and their simultaneous reaction to form the final phase during film formation. Such deposition conditions of simultaneous high temperature and high vacuum encountered in the single-step process result in different growth mechanisms, bring up different issues, and also open new possibilities to fabricate absorbers for efficient solar cells. This study explores depositions starting from different initial compositions and examines the phase evolution, grain morphology, and device performance of resulting copper zinc tin selenide films.
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