Sungeun Park, Jooyoung Song, Sung Ju Tark, Young Do Kim, Chel-jong Choi, Soonwoo Kwon, Sewang Yoon, Chang-Sik Son and Donghwan Kim Investigation of Al back contacts and BSF formation by in situ TEM for silicon solar cells Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 22
Back contacts made by Al evaporation and screen printing Al paste for Si solar cells were studied by TEM. Si was found to diffuse into Al during heating. Si diffusion made vacancies in the Si wafer. Al could then penetrate the Si wafer in spiked formations. Al spikes retreated during cooling, leaving a doped region (BSF).
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