Sander A. Mann, Mariska J. de Wild-Scholten, Vasilis M. Fthenakis, Wilfried G.J.H.M. van Sark and Wim C. Sinke The energy payback time of advanced crystalline silicon PV modules in 2020: a prospective study Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 22
On the basis of technological scenario development and a prospective life cycle assessment, we forecast the environmental performance of crystalline silicon technologies in 2020, the year in which PV is anticipated to be competitive with wholesale electricity costs all across Europe. We estimate that the energy payback time at an in-plane irradiation of 1700 kWh/(m2*year) of crystalline silicon modules can be reduced to below 0.5 years by 2020, which is less than half of the current energy payback time.
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