Thi Thu Thao Ho, Tanja Zimmermann, Walter Remo Caseri and Paul Smith Liquid ammonia treatment of (cationic) nanofibrillated cellulose/vermiculite composites Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 51
Composite films of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and vermiculite have been prepared and subsequently treated with liquid ammonia, resulting in film cross-sections with highly oriented layered structures. The structure of films before and after ammonia treatment is densest and most homogeneous in trimethylammonium-modified (TMA)- NFC/vermiculite films. The composites do not swell in ammonia due to electrostatic attraction between ammonium groups of TMA-NFC and anionic layers of vermiculite. The composites have potential applications as eco-friendly barriers for food packaging.
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