Sebastian Reineke and Marc A. Baldo Recent progress in the understanding of exciton dynamics within phosphorescent OLEDs physica status solidi (a) 209
The use of phosphorescent emitter molecules in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) allows that every exciton formed in the organic emission layer(s) can emit a photon. With that, phosphorescence provides a fourfold improvement over conventional fluorescent OLEDs to unity internal quantum efficiency. In turn, the excited state lifetimes of the triplet emitters used are orders of magnitude longer than the ones of singlet excitons introducing a noticeable efficiency roll-off. In this Feature Article, we review recent progress in the understanding of phosphorescence in OLEDs. In addition, Reineke and Baldo discuss emerging conceptual alternatives to phosphorescence like extrafluorescence and thermally delayed fluorescence.
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