Wolfgang Brütting, Jörg Frischeisen, Tobias D. Schmidt, Bert J. Scholz and Christian Mayr Device efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes: Progress by improved light outcoupling physica status solidi (a) 210
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are efficient large-area light sources facing their market entry. Still, the enhancement of light outcoupling from the multi-layer thin film structures remains a major challenge. This Review Article introduces the working principles of OLEDs and gives an overview of ongoing efforts to improve their efficiency, in particular by extracting more light. As an example, the photograph shows a white OLED where light emission from trapped modes is enabled by a high-index prism.
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