Vishesha Patel and Svetlana A. Malinovskaya Realization of population inversion under nonadiabatic conditions induced by the coupling between vibrational modes via Raman fields International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 112
In a simplistic picture, the laser process can be approximated by a two-level system. Here, the effects of the coupling between Raman-active vibrational modes on the population transfer are investigated using two coupled two-level systems with non-degenerate ground states. The population inversion is induced by two ultrafast laser pulses having chirps equal in magnitude and opposite in sign, and thus demonstrated in a more generic case of the averaged initial relative phase.
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