A. Gelmi, M. J. Higgins and G. G. Wallace Resolving Sub-Molecular Binding and Electrical Switching Mechanisms of Single Proteins at Electroactive Conducting Polymers Small 9
An atomic force microscope (AFM) tip is functionalized with fibronectin protein and interacts with a conducting polymer electrode comprising a conjugated backbone with entrapped dopants such as chondroitin sulphate, hyaluronic acid, or dextran sulfate. The conducting polymer operates as the working electrode in a 3-electrode electrochemical cell, including auxiliary and reference electrodes, positioned under the AFM. Force spectroscopy measurements are performed as a function of an applied voltage to study biomolecular interactions under electrical control.
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