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Nessa E. O'Connor, Mark C. Emmerson, Tasman P. Crowe and Ian Donohue Distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of predators in complex ecosystems Journal of Animal Ecology 82

Article first published online: 16 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12001

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This is the first study to manipulate two predator species and two groups of their prey in the field, identifying direct and indirect effects of predators on algal assemblages and showing that non-trophic and trophic interactions must be considered simultaneously to understand the functional role of consumers for ecosystems.

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