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Niels J. Dingemanse and Ned A. Dochtermann Quantifying individual variation in behaviour: mixed-effect modelling approaches Journal of Animal Ecology 82

Article first published online: 21 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12013

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Tools for decomposing phenotypic variance into between- and within-individual components is of crucial important for many current scientific questions in animal ecology. This “How to” paper provides an overview of the tools to do so.

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