Josu G. Alday, Emma S. Cox, Robin J. Pakeman, Mike P. K. Harris, Mike G. LeDuc and Rob H. Marrs Overcoming resistance and resilience of an invaded community is necessary for effective restoration: a multi-site bracken control study Journal of Applied Ecology 50
There are two important results for land managers: (i) where Calluna heathland is the target, ‘repeated’ treatments (cutting once or twice per year) were effective in overcoming the resistance of invaded community and moving species composition towards the target state, effectively creating an alternative state; (ii) where acid grassland is the target both ‘one-off’ and ‘repeated’ treatments overcame the invaded community resistance (‘one-off’ also overcame resilience) producing changes in species composition in the desired direction. The effectiveness of ‘one-off’ treatments was site dependent and produced alternative stable states within 10 years. In contrast, ‘repeated’ treatments were site independent but took longer to work and were more expensive.
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