Aafke M. Schipper, Harrie W. M. Hendriks, Matthew J. Kauffman, A. Jan Hendriks and Mark A. J. Huijbregts Modelling interactions of toxicants and density dependence in wildlife populations Journal of Applied Ecology 50
Our modelling results showed that particular life stages of a density-limited population may be relatively insensitive to toxicant impacts until a critical threshold is crossed. In our study population, toxicant-induced changes were observed in the equilibrium number of nonbreeding rather than breeding birds, suggesting that monitoring efforts including both life stages are needed to timely detect population declines. Further, by combining quantitative exposure–response relationships with a wildlife demographic model, we provided a method to quantify critical toxicant thresholds for wildlife population persistence.
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