Margherita Gioria and Bruce A. Osborne Biological Flora of the British Isles: Gunnera tinctoria Journal of Ecology 101
Gunnera tinctoria is among the largest of herbaceous species. Native to South America, it is widely naturalized in areas with high water availability, where it modifies ecosystem functioning and reduces biodiversity. Predicted changes in climate are likely to promote the expansion of naturalized populations in Britain and Ireland. Its several peculiarities include near obligate dependence on an intracellular symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria.
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