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Megan E. Frederickson, Alison Ravenscraft, Lina M. Arcila Hernández, Gregory Booth, Viviana Astudillo and Gabriel A. Miller What happens when ants fail at plant defence? Cordia nodosa dynamically adjusts its investment in both direct and indirect resistance traits in response to herbivore damage Journal of Ecology 101

Article first published online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12034

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How do ant-plants cope with the vagaries of biotic defenders? We found that the ant-plant Cordia nodosa induces both direct and indirect defenses when ants fail to adequately to defend it against herbivory. Our results suggest that C. nodosa retains direct defenses as insurance against varying levels of protection from its ant bodyguards.

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