Jessamyn S. Manson, Daniel Cook, Dale R. Gardner and Rebecca E. Irwin Dose-dependent effects of nectar alkaloids in a montane plant–pollinator community Journal of Ecology 101
The ecological consequences of nectar secondary metabolites remain relatively unexplored. Delphinium barbeyi has nectar alkaloids at concentrations substantially lower than those found in its leaves or flowers. Nectar alkaloids had dose-dependent effects, with high concentrations negatively affecting pollinators and pollination, but natural concentrations having no effects on plant reproduction, suggesting that low nectar alkaloid concentrations incurred no ecological costs.
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