Shinji Yamagata, Yusuke Takahashi, Koken Ozaki, Keiko K. Fujisawa, Koichi Nonaka and Juko Ando Bidirectional influences between maternal parenting and children's peer problems: a longitudinal monozygotic twin difference study Developmental Science 16
This longitudinal twin study examined the bidirectional relationship between maternal parenting behaviors and children's peer problems that were not confounded by genetics and family environment. Mothers of 259 monozygotic twin pairs reported parenting behaviors and peer problems when twins were 42 and 48 months. Path analyses on monozygotic twin differences scores revealed that authoritative parenting (the presence of consistent discipline and lack of harsh parenting) and peer problems simultaneously influenced each other.
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