Marion Höfle, Ulrich Pomper, Michael Hauck, Andreas K. Engel and Daniel Senkowski Spectral signatures of viewing a needle approaching one's body when anticipating pain European Journal of Neuroscience 38
Viewing a needle pricking a hand that is perceived as one's own compared with viewing a Q-tip touch enhances perceived unpleasantness of painful and nonpainful electrical stimuli. Moreover, observing an approaching needle compared to a Q-tip increases pupil dilation response and modulates alpha-band activity in posterior cingulate cortex and fusiform gyrus prior to the onset of electrical stimuli. Interplay between central and peripheral nervous system prior to painful stimulation may be crucial for the initiation of a defense response.
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