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Nick J. Davis, Edward Gold, Alvaro Pascual-Leone and R. Martyn Bracewell Challenges of proper placebo control for non-invasive brain stimulation in clinical and experimental applications European Journal of Neuroscience 38

Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12307

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All neuroscientific experiments and clinical trials should have a suitable control condition to allow for a meaningful assessment of the effect of the intervention. Brain stimulation experiments using transcranial magnetic or current stimulation are technically difficult to control, as there is often no proper placebo condition. We discuss the safety and ethical decisions that are required when designing brain stimulation experiments with human participants.

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