Wei Wang, Li Sun, Yonghao Deng and Jie Tang Synergistic effects of antibodies against high-mobility group box 1 and tumor necrosis factor-α antibodies on d-(+)-galactosamine hydrochloride/lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver failure The FEBS Journal 280
HMGB1 is released into the serum at a very early stage of D-GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury. It up-regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and tissue factor expression. TNF-α and HMGB1 form a positive feedback loop to amplify the downstream signals. Anti-HMGB1 and anti-TNF-α antibodies have synergistic effects in protecting mice from D-GalN/LPS-induced acute liver failure.
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