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Kevin J. Gaston, Thomas W. Davies, Jonathan Bennie and John Hopkins REVIEW: Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments Journal of Applied Ecology 49

Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02212.x

The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse ecological impacts while balancing the often conflicting requirements of light for human utility, comfort and safety, aesthetic concerns, energy consumption and carbon emission reduction constitute significant future challenges. However, as both lighting technology and understanding of its ecological effects develop, there is potential to identify adaptive solutions that resolve these conflicts.

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