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Elliot C. Nelson, Michael T. Lynskey, Andrew C. Heath, Naomi Wray, Arpana Agrawal, Fiona L. Shand, Anjali K. Henders, Leanne Wallace, Alexandre A. Todorov, Andrew J. Schrage, Pamela A. F. Madden, Louisa Degenhardt, Nicholas G. Martin and Grant W. Montgomery Association of OPRD1 polymorphisms with heroin dependence in a large case-control series Addiction Biology 19

Article first published online: 13 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2012.00445.x

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Genes encoding the opioid receptors (OPRM1, OPRD1 and OPRK1) are obvious candidates for involvement in risk for heroin dependence.. Participants for the current investigation included 1459 heroin-dependent cases ascertained from maintenance clinics in New South Wales, Australia, 1495 unrelated individuals selected from an Australian sample of twins and siblings as not meeting DSM-IV criteria for lifetime alcohol or illicit drug dependence (non-dependent controls) and 531 controls ascertained from economically disadvantaged neighborhoods in proximity to the maintenance clinics. 

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