Sophia Li, Sheng Zou, Kathleen Coen, Douglas Funk, Megan J. Shram and A.D. Lê Sex differences in yohimbine-induced increases in the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine in adolescent rats Addiction Biology 19
Stress is an important factor in adolescent smoking. Females more readily develop addiction to smoking, have more difficulty quitting, and show enhanced stress responses. We therefore investigated how stress affects the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine in male and female rats trained to self-administer nicotine intravenously as adolescents. Compared to males, females had greater increases in progressive ratio breakpoints, that also occurred at lower nicotine infusion doses, in response to the pharmacological stressor yohimbine, suggesting that the adolescent females were more sensitive to stress-induced potentiation of nicotine’s reinforcing efficacy.
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