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John E. Opfer and Marilee A. Martens Learning without representational change: development of numerical estimation in individuals with Williams syndrome Developmental Science 15

Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01187.x

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Experience engenders learning, but not all learning involves representational change. In this paper, we provide a dramatic case study of the distinction between learning and representational change. Specifically, we examined long- and short-term changes in representations of numeric magnitudes by asking individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing (TD) children to estimate the position of numbers on a number line. As with TD children, accuracy of WS children's numerical estimates improved with age (Experiment 1) and feedback (Experiment 2).

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