Tadao Maeda, Marcin Golczak and Akiko Maeda Retinal Photodamage Mediated by All-trans-retinal† Photochemistry and Photobiology 88
Accumulation of all-trans-retinal (all-trans-RAL), reactive vitamin A aldehyde, is a key factor in initiating retinal photodamage, by light exposure in both acute and chronic fashion. Efficient transport and reduction of all-trans-RAL by key enzymes, ATP-binding cassette transporter 4 and all-trans-retinol dehydrogenase (RDH8) in the photoreceptor is essential for prevention of all-trans-RAL and its condensation products accumulation. This emphasizes the importance of this initial step in the visual cycle in maintaining the health of the retina. Recent understanding of all-trans-RAL toxicity and advanced in vivo imaging technologies have led to the development of new solutions to fight retinal degenerative diseases.
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