Gene Regulation in Melanoma Progression by the AP-2 Transcription Factor


Address reprint requests to Dr. Menashe Bar-Eli, Department of Cancer Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Box 173, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. E-mail:


The molecular changes associated with the transition of melanoma cells from radial growth phase (RGP) to vertical growth phase [(VGP), metastatic phenotype] are not very well defined. We previously demonstrated that expression of the cell-surface adhesion molecule MCAM/MUC18 correlates directly with the metastatic potential of human melanoma cells. In addition, the progression of human melanoma towards the metastatic phenotype is associated with loss of expression of the tyrosine-kinase receptor c-KIT. In this review, I will summarize our recent studies demonstrating that the expression of both genes is regulated by the AP-2 transcription factor. Moreover, we have observed a loss of AP-2 expression in metastatic melanoma cells. Re-expression of AP-2 in the highly metastatic A375SM cells decreased their tumorigenicity and inhibited their metastatic potential in nude mice. MCAM/MUC18 mRNA and protein expression was significantly down-regulated while c-KIT expression was up-regulated in the AP-2-transfected cells. To further investigate the role of AP-2 in the progression of human melanoma, we attempted to inactivate AP-2 in primary cutaneous melanoma by using a dominant-negative AP-2, or the AP-2B gene. Expression of AP-2B in SB-2 cells augmented their tumorigenicity in nude mice, and upregulated MMP-2 expression and activity. As AP-2 also regulates other genes that are involved in the progression of human melanoma such as E-cadherin, p21/WAF-1, HER2/neu, Bcl-2, FAS/APO-1, IGF-R-1, VEGF and the thrombin receptor (PAR-1), we therefore propose that loss of AP-2 is a crucial event in the development of malignant melanoma. In addition, the transition of melanoma cells from RGP to VGP is also associated with over-expression of the transcription factors CREB and ATF-1. The notion that the balance between AP-2 and CREB/ATF-1 expression determines the progression of melanoma cells towards the metastatic phenotype will be discussed.


activator protein-2


activating transcription factor-1


chloramphenicol acetyl transferase


cyclic AMP response element-binding protein


melanoma cell adhesion molecule


matrix metalloproteinase-2