Chapter 12.2 Space‐group symbols

Space‐group symmetry

First Online Edition (2006)

Part 12. Space‐group symbols and their use

  1. H. Burzlaff1,
  2. H. Zimmermann2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2006

DOI: 10.1107/97809553602060000525

International Tables for Crystallography

International Tables for Crystallography

How to Cite

Burzlaff, H. and Zimmermann, H. 2006. Space‐group symbols. International Tables for Crystallography. A:12:12.2:821–822.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Universität Erlangen–Nürnberg, Robert‐Koch‐Strasse 4a, D‐91080 Uttenreuth, Germany

  2. 2

    Institut für Angewandte Physik, Lehrstuhl für Kristallographie und Strukturphysik, Universität Erlangen–Nürnberg, Bismarckstrasse 10, D‐91054 Erlangen, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2006



Space‐group symbols can be obtained by a modification of point‐group symbols. Schoenflies symbols, Shubnikov symbols, Hermann–Mauguin symbols and the international short symbols are discussed. Schoenflies symbols for space groups result from a simple modification of point‐group symbols, which just enumerates the space‐group types. The Shubnikov and Hermann–Mauguin symbols, however, reveal the glide or screw components of the symmetry operations, and the nature of the symmetry elements and their relative locations and orientations can be deduced from the symbol.


  • space‐group symbols;
  • Schoenflies symbols;
  • Shubnikov symbols;
  • Hermann–Mauguin symbols;
  • glide planes;
  • international space‐group symbols