Chapter

Chapter 2.3 Powder and related techniques: X‐ray techniques

Mathematical, physical and chemical tables

First Online Edition (2006)

Part 2. Diffraction geometry and its practical realization

  1. W. Parrish1,
  2. J. I. Langford2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2006

DOI: 10.1107/97809553602060000578

International Tables for Crystallography

International Tables for Crystallography

How to Cite

Parrish, W. and Langford, J. I. 2006. Powder and related techniques: X‐ray techniques. International Tables for Crystallography. C:2:2.3:42–79.

Author Information

  1. 1

    IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA, USA

  2. 2

    School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, England

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2006

SEARCH

Abstract

This chapter discusses the most frequently used X‐ray powder diffraction methods and related techniques. Topics covered include: focusing diffractometer geometries; parallel‐beam geometries and synchrotron radiation; specimen factors; angle, intensity and profile‐shape measurement; and the generation, modification and measurement of X‐ray spectra.

Keywords:

  • aberrations;
  • air and window transmission;
  • alignment and angular calibration;
  • angle definition;
  • automation;
  • axial divergence;
  • balanced filters;
  • cameras;
  • combined aberrations;
  • computer‐controlled automation;
  • counting statistics;
  • crystals;
  • crystallite‐size effects;
  • cylindrical cameras;
  • cylindrical powder specimens;
  • cylindrical sample;
  • Debye–Scherrer cameras;
  • diffraction;
  • filters;
  • focal‐line width;
  • focusing diffractometer geometries;
  • focusing powder cameras;
  • generator stability;
  • geometrical instrument parameters;
  • grazing‐incidence diffraction;
  • Guinier focusing;
  • high‐resolution energy‐dispersive diffraction;
  • instrument broadening and aberrations;
  • instrument parameters;
  • intensity;
  • microdiffractometry;
  • monochromatic radiation;
  • monochromators;
  • parallel‐beam geometry;
  • peak asymmetry;
  • powder cameras;
  • powder diffraction;
  • powder patterns;
  • preferred orientation;
  • profile fitting;
  • rate‐meter measurements;
  • receiving slits;
  • reflection specimen;
  • Seemann–Bohlin method;
  • single filters;
  • source intensity distribution and size;
  • specimens;
  • spectral purity;
  • stability of X‐ray sources;
  • strip‐chart recordings;
  • synchrotron radiation;
  • transmission specimens;
  • wavelength selection;
  • X‐ray powder techniques;
  • X‐ray spectra;
  • X‐ray tubes