Chapter 8.5 Detection and treatment of systematic error

Mathematical, physical and chemical tables

First Online Edition (2006)

Part 8. Refinement of structural parameters

  1. E. Prince1,
  2. C. H. Spiegelman2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2006

DOI: 10.1107/97809553602060000613

International Tables for Crystallography

International Tables for Crystallography

How to Cite

Prince, E. and Spiegelman, C. H. 2006. Detection and treatment of systematic error. International Tables for Crystallography. C:8:8.5:707–709.

Author Information

  1. 1

    NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Statistics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2006



Chapter 8.5 discusses the concept of accuracy and its difference from precision. Systematic error, or bias, results from an incorrect or incomplete model. Several ways to detect and eliminate bias, including measures of adequate fit, the effect of influential data, and plausibility of results, are discussed.


  • accuracy;
  • detection;
  • influential data points;
  • systematic errors