Chapter 10.1 Introduction to cryocrystallography

Crystallography of biological macromolecules

Second Online Edition (2012)

Part 10. Cryocrystallography

  1. H. Hope1,
  2. S. Parkin2

Published Online: 14 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1107/97809553602060000827

International Tables for Crystallography

International Tables for Crystallography

How to Cite

Hope, H. and Parkin, S. 2012. Introduction to cryocrystallography. International Tables for Crystallography. F:10:10.1:241–248.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616–5295, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 APR 2012



A general introduction to cryocrystallography is provided. The chapter covers crystal mounting, cooling of biocrystals, principles of cooling equipment and frost prevention. Operational considerations, such as dual‐stream instruments, electrically heated nozzles, temperature calibration and transfer of crystals to difractometers, are also described.


  • cryocrystallography;
  • crystal mounting;
  • data collection;
  • frost prevention;
  • ice formation;
  • radiation damage