Chapter 22.2 Molecular surfaces: calculations, uses and representations

Crystallography of biological macromolecules

Second Online Edition (2012)

Part 22. Molecular geometry and features

  1. M. S. Chapman1,
  2. M. L. Connolly2

Published Online: 14 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1107/97809553602060000886

International Tables for Crystallography

International Tables for Crystallography

How to Cite

Chapman, M. S. and Connolly, M. L. 2012. Molecular surfaces: calculations, uses and representations. International Tables for Crystallography. F:22:22.2:713–720.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Chemistry & Institute of Molecular Biophysics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306–4380, USA

  2. 2

    1259 El Camino Real 184, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 APR 2012



In this chapter, the calculation of molecular surface areas, the uses of surface‐area calculations and the representation of molecular surfaces are discussed.


  • GRASP;
  • molecular surfaces;
  • surface areas;
  • representation of surfaces;
  • surface‐area calculation