Chapter 23.3 Protein–ligand interactions

Crystallography of biological macromolecules

Second Online Edition (2012)

Part 23. Structural analysis and classification

  1. A. E. Hodel1,
  2. F. A. Quiocho2

Published Online: 14 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1107/97809553602060000892

International Tables for Crystallography

International Tables for Crystallography

How to Cite

Hodel, A. E. and Quiocho, F. A. 2012. Protein–ligand interactions. International Tables for Crystallography. F:23:23.3:755–765.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA

  2. 2

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 APR 2012



Protein–ligand interactions are described and several of the unique interactions observed between proteins and other molecules are illustrated. The chapter covers protein–carbohydrate interactions, metal ions associated with proteins, protein–nucleic acid interactions, and sulfate and phosphate interactions.


  • carbohydrate‐binding proteins;
  • DNA;
  • hydrogen bonding;
  • nucleic acids;
  • phosphate‐binding protein;
  • protein function;
  • protein–carbohydrate recognition;
  • protein–ligand interactions;
  • protein–nucleic acid interactions;
  • RNA;
  • transfer RNA