BioEssays

Cover image for Vol. 39 Issue 9

Editor: Andrew Moore

Online ISSN: 1521-1878

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Volume 39, Issue 9, September 2017


Inflammation and insulin resistance: New targets encourage new thinking : Galectin-3 and LTB4 are pro-inflammatory molecules that can be targeted to restore insulin sensitivity

Inflammation and insulin resistance: New targets encourage new thinking : Galectin-3 and LTB4 are pro-inflammatory molecules that can be targeted to restore insulin sensitivity

Andrew M. F. Johnson, Shaocong Hou, Pingping Li*

Recent advances have indicated that a diverse range of inflammatory molecules, including leukotriene B4 and Galectin-3 can cause insulin resistance. Key challenges for translating these new targets into therapies include their pleiotropic effects and likely patient heterogeneity, such as is caused by the intestinal microbiome.

BioEssays2017, 39, No. 9, 0 [Prospects & Overviews]

Activation processes in ligand-activated G protein-coupled receptors: A case study of the adenosine A2A receptor

Activation processes in ligand-activated G protein-coupled receptors: A case study of the adenosine A2A receptor

R. Scott Prosser*, Libin Ye, Aditya Pandey, Alexander Orazietti

GPCRs represent a ubiquitous class of transmembrane receptors, responsible for cell signaling and cell homeostasis. Their activation gives rise to conformational changes that allow the receptor to engage downstream partners. Activation can be thought of in terms of a free energy landscape associated with distinct conformers, responsible for the process. Here, the action of ligands is seen to alter this landscape by enabling transitions between key intermediates.

BioEssays2017, 39, No. 9, 0 [Prospects & Overviews]

Evolution of peroxisomes illustrates symbiogenesis

Evolution of peroxisomes illustrates symbiogenesis

Dave Speijer*

Eukaryotic peroxisomes illustrate effects of symbiogenesis, following the non-phagocytotic merger of an archaeon and a bacterium. Internal ROS formation upon fatty acid (FA) oxidation was reduced by the invention of peroxisomes for extra-mitochondrial FA oxidation. Both peroxisomal membranes and their oldest enzymes seem ultimately derived from the pre-mitochondrion.

BioEssays2017, 39, No. 9, 0 [Prospects & Overviews]

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