American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Cover image for Vol. 162 Issue 3

Edited By: Peter T. Ellison, Yearbook Editor: Trudy Turner

Impact Factor: 2.402

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 8/84 (Anthropology); 26/46 (Evolutionary Biology)

Online ISSN: 1096-8644

Author Guidelines

Online Submission
      Submitting Your Manuscript to the AJPA
      Research Articles
            General Instructions
            Article Structure
            Journal Style
            Search Engine Optimization
      Other Submission Categories
      Tables and Figures
Authorship in the AJPA
            Ethical Statements
            Conflict of Interest
            AJPA Human and Nonhuman Subjects Statement
      Genetics Papers
      Note to NIH Grantees
      Open Access Option
After Acceptance
      Signing a License Electronically
            Copyright Transfer Agreement
      Author Services
      Production Questions
Yearbook of Physical Anthropology

Editor Contact Information:
Dr. Peter T. Ellison
Harvard University


Submitting Your Manuscript to the AJPA

Authors are required to submit their manuscripts online. If you do not have online access, contact the editor at before submission.

To submit a manuscript online, first launch your web browser and go to

Check for an existing account. If you are submitting for the first time, and you do not have an existing account, create a new account by following the onscreen step-by-step instructions.

At the end of a successful submission, you will receive email confirmation that the manuscript has been received by the journal. If you do not receive the confirmation, then check your submission to ensure that you have clicked the final submit buttons. If you are concerned that your submission did not register, contact technical support by clicking the Get Help Now button or send an email message to or the Office of the Editor-in-Chief (

IMPORTANT: Text, figures and tables must be submitted as separate files to ensure that the submission is successful.

To avoid possible delay in processing your submission, your files must be submitted in the following formats:

  • One DOC or DOCX file with text and citations
  • Each figure in a separate file in TIF or EPS format
  • Tables in individual DOC or DOCX files

See the relevant sections of these guidelines for format requirements.

Do not mail paper copies of your manuscript to the Editor. Be sure to keep an electronic copy that is identical to the version that you submitted online.

Research Articles

General Instructions

Research articles should be concise and follow a standard organization with the following major sections: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, Literature Cited. Subheadings within sections should be used to clarify the organization as needed. Figures and Tables should be limited to those necessary for understanding the results and conclusions of the manuscript. Additional tables and figures may be submitted under Supporting Information and will be available to readers online.

Do not divide words at the end of lines; if they are unfamiliar to the printer, they may be incorrectly hyphenated.

  • Do not begin sentences with abbreviations.
  • The word "Figure" is not abbreviated in the text, except when appearing in parentheses: (Fig. 2); (Figs. 4-6).
  • The spelling of non-technical terms should be that recommended in the current Webster's International Dictionary. Use American spellings (e.g., “behavior” not “behaviour”).
  • Always spell out numbers when they stand as the first word in a sentence or if the number is less than 10 (numbers 10 and greater should use Arabic numerals); do not follow numbers spelled out with abbreviations. Numbers indicating time, weight, and measurements are to be in Arabic numerals when followed by abbreviations (e.g., 2 mm; 1 sec; 3 ml).
  • Text to be italicized should be italicized and not underlined in the manuscript.

Article Structure

Title page. The title page must contain the following elements:

  • Title
  • Author's name (or names)
  • Institution from which the paper emanated, with city, state, and postal code
  • Number of text pages, plus bibliography, number of figures, tables, graphs, and charts
  • Abbreviated title (running headline) not to exceed 48 characters and spaces
  • Key words: Do not repeat terms used in the article title, and do not exceed 85 characters and spaces. Provide a minimum of three key words, and no more than five.
  • Name, address, telephone number, fax number, and email address of the person to whom the proof is to be sent. If you plan to be away while your article is in press, please inform the publisher
  • Grant sponsorship

Abstract. Abstracts should be no more than 250 words. Abstracts for Research Articles and Brief Communications should be structured with the following headings in bold, separated by line breaks: Objectives, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion. Abstracts are often the form of an article most easily accessible to readers and should convey the major findings clearly.

Introduction. The Introduction should provide enough background for the reader to understand the objectives and motivation of the study. Extensive literature review is unnecessary and should be avoided.

Materials and Methods. This section should include all the information that would be necessary for a replication of the study as well as for an generally informed reader to evaluate the study and its results. Published methods may be referenced but may also need to be briefly summarized for clarity. Highly specialized procedures or forms of analysis may need explication so as to be understood by a generalist. A clear statement of approval by relevant ethics panels must be included.

Results. The Results section should present the findings of the study without excessive interpretation.

Discussion. The Discussion section is the appropriate place for all interpretation of the study results, comparison with the results of previous studies, conclusions and hypotheses based on those comparisons, and suggestions for future research. No new analyses or results should appear in this section. Interpretations and conclusions should be restrained and justified by the results.

Acknowledgements. This section should include a statement of grant support as well as acknowledgement of contributions that do not rise to the level of co-authorship. A statement of the contributions made to the study by each of the listed authors should be included. A statement of the location of any data to be archived from the study should be included.

Literature cited. In the text, references to the literature should be cited by author's surname followed by year of publication. If there are multiple citations, present them alphabetically:

. . . analysis by Ward (2001) reveal . . .
. . . studies by Corner and Richtsmeier (2004) reveal . . .
. . . studies by Little et al. (1993) reveal . . .
. . . an earlier report (Hutchinson, 1999) . . .
. . . earlier reports (Arriaza et al., 2000; Paoli et al., 2002; Ross, 2003) . . .

When references are made to more than one paper by the same author published in the same year, they should be designated in the text as (Benefit and McCrossin, 1993a,b) and in the Literature Cited as follows:

Benefit B.R., McCrossin M.L. (1993a). New Kenyapithecus postcrania and other primate fossils from Maboko Island, Kenya [abstract]. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Suppl,16,55–56.

Benefit B.R., McCrossin M.L. (1993b). On the lacrimal fossa of Cercopithecinae, with special reference to cladistic analysis of Old World monkey relationships. Folia Primatologica, 60, 133–145.

The literature list must follow APA style (refer to the APA Style Manual, 6th edition) and be arranged alphabetically, not chronologically, by author's or authors' surname(s) in the following style: Author's name (or names), year of publication, complete title, volume, and inclusive pages as follows:

Eck, J., & Spelman, W. (1987). Problem-solving: Problem-oriented policing in Newport News. Research in Brief. Cambridge, England: National Institute of Justice.
Goldstein, H. (1990). Problem-oriented policing. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Edited Book:
Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., ... Botros, N. (1983). Situational crime prevention: Its theoretical basis and practical scope. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 4, pp. 225–256). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Goldstein, H. (1979, Winter). Improving police: A problem-oriented approach. Crime & Delinquency, 3, 236–258.

Paper Presentation:
Weiss, A., & McGarrell, E. F. (1996, November). The impact of increased traffic enforcement on crime. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Chicago, IL.

Muellbauer, J. (2007, September). Housing, credit, and consumer expenditure. In S. C. Ludvigson (Chair), Housing and consumer behavior. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Jackson Hole, WY.

Conference paper abstract retrieved online:
Liu, S. (2005, May). Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami, FL. Abstract retrieved from

Proceedings published in book form:
Katz, I., Gabayan, K., & Aghajan, H. (2007). A multi-touch surface using multiple cameras. In J. Blanc-Talon, W. Philips, D. Popescu, & P. Scheunders (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Vol. 4678. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (pp. 97–108). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74607-2

Schnittker, J. (2004). Education and the changing shape of the income gradient in health (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Name of Institution, Location.

Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2004). Child care and child development (Report No. xxx). Los Angeles, CA: Publisher.

Smith I. M. (2011). U. S. Patent No. 235,445. Location: Publisher.

Abbreviations of journal titles should follow those used in Index Medicus, available via PubMed at

Notes: Alphabetize by the author’s surname. • Alphabetize letter by letter. When alphabetizing surnames, remember that “nothing precedes something”: Brown, J. R., precedes Browning, A. R., even though i precedes j in the alphabet. • Up to seven authors in the list. If more than seven, list first six and then ellipses followed by last author.

Footnotes. Footnotes to the text should be limited as much as possible and must be numbered consecutively. The corresponding reference numbers must be clearly indicated in the text. Additional references to the identical footnotes are to be numbered with the next following consecutive numbers:

2 Material used for this experiment was provided by . . .
3 See footnote 2.

Footnotes to a table should be typed directly beneath the table and numbered with superscripts (e.g., 1, 2, 3). They should not be numbered in sequence with the footnotes in the text. If superscript numbers could be mistaken for exponents, substitute superscript letters (e.g., a, b, c).

Journal Style

Measurements. The metric system should be used for all measurements. Temperatures should be expressed in degrees Celsius (centigrade). Metric abbreviations should be expressed in standard notation lowercase (e.g., mm) without periods.

Symbols. When preceded by a digit, the following symbols are to be used: % for percent; ° for degree.

Abbreviations. Use the following abbreviations for most common measurements of length, area, volume, and weight:


Km kilometer
m meter
cm centimeter
mm millimeter
μm micrometer (micron)
nm nanometer
pm picometer
Å Ångstrom unit (10 Å = 1 nm)


km 2 square kilometer
m 2 square meter
cm 2 square centimeter
mm 2 square millimeter
μm 2 square micrometer
nm 2 square nanometer
km 3 cubic kilometer
m 3 cubic meter
cm 3 cubic centimeter
mm 3 cubic millimeter
μm 3 cubic micrometer
nm 3 cubic nanometer


Kl kiloliter
liter spell out
ml milliliter
μl microliter
nl nanoliter
pl picoliter


kg kilogram
gm gram
mg milligram
μg microgram
ng nanogram
pg picogram

Text headings. Do not begin the body of the paper with the heading "Introduction." The first heading should follow the introduction. The journal uses a system of primary, secondary, and tertiary headings. All letters for primary headings are in caps (e.g., RESULTS). Only the first letter of the secondary heading and proper nouns are in caps (e.g., Complete set of morphological features). Only the first letter of tertiary headings is capitalized (e.g., Interphalangeal joint morphology). All headings are boldfaced. Primary and secondary headings are centered. Tertiary headings are italicized, end in a period, and are the beginning of the first line of the paragraph.

Search Engine Optimization for your Paper

Consult our SEO Tips for Authors page in order to maximize online discoverability for your published research. Included are tips for making your title and abstract SEO-friendly, choosing appropriate keywords, and promoting your research through social media.

Other Submission Categories

Brief Communications are short research contributions of fewer than 4,000 words. The style of presentation and format are the same as regular research articles. The Brief Communications report the outcome of a small, problem-based study (e.g., Reed et al. [2003] AJPA 121:112-116).

News and Views are short pieces, dealing with a range of topics of interest to the readership of the journal. They normally do not exceed 2000 words.

Perspectives address issues of broad interest in physical anthropology, presenting opinion on trends in specific research areas. Manuscripts are solicited by the Editor, but unsolicited ideas for submissions are encouraged. Perspectives are not review articles.

The Theory and Synthesis category is for manuscripts that make original contributions to theory and synthesis in biological anthropology. There is no predefined structure for these manuscripts, though they should include Abstract, Acknowledgements, and Literature Cited sections at the least in addition to the body of the manuscript. Headings and subheadings should be used to clarify the structure of the paper.

The Notes and Comments section is reserved for two categories of publication: (1) Technical Notes and (2) Letters to the Editor. Technical notes are short, methodological articles (e.g., Chen and Lam [1997] AJPA 103:557-560). Letters to the Editor are responses to previously published items from the journal. Items submitted for consideration under this heading should ordinarily not exceed 2000 words. They should be submitted in the form of a letter to the editor, with a title but no key words, abstract, or headings. Tables, figures, and literature cited should be minimized or avoided. An author whose article the letter writer is commenting on will be given an opportunity to read the letter and to respond. If the two letters are found acceptable following review, the reply is published with the letter, usually within the same issue of the journal.

Book Reviews are solicited by the Book Review Editor. Unsolicited reviews will not ordinarily be considered for publication. A book review should begin by stating the title, author(s), publisher, date, page count, price, and ISBN number of the work reviewed:

VISIONS OF CALIBAN: ON CHIMPANZEES AND PEOPLE. By Dale Peterson and Jane Goodall. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1993. 367 pp., $22.95 (cloth). ISBN 0-395-53760-6.

The review should include no other front matter (title, abstract, key words), headings, tables, or illustrations. Bibliographical citations should be avoided if possible. The reviewer's name and address should be placed at the end of the review. Submission of a book review does not guarantee its publication.

Tables and Figures

Authors should limit the number of tables and figures to that which adequately presents the findings. Additional tables and figures may be submitted under Supporting Information and will be available to readers online.


Each table should be submitted in an individual file in DOC or DOCX format and should be clearly presented without unnecessary formatting. Tables should be numbered consecutively (e.g., Table 1, Table 2, etc.). All tables must be cited in the article text. Do not embed tables in the article text but instead indicate where the tables belong in the article text within brackets, e.g., [Table 1 here]. Table titles should be complete but brief. Information other than that defining the data should be presented in footnotes, not in the table heading.


General Instructions. Each figure should be submitted in an individual file in TIF or EPS format. Figures should be numbered consecutively (e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). All figures must be cited in the article text. Do not embed figures in the article text but instead indicate where the figures belong in the article text within brackets, e.g., [Figure 1 here]. Figure legends should be collected in a single DOC or DOCX file and uploaded separately during the submission process. When uploading figures in ScholarOne Manuscripts, please include the figure number in the Caption/Legend box, even though you have provided a separate list of figure legends. Abbreviations for all figures should be listed alphabetically and placed before the first figure mentioning them, such as:

CPCortical plate
SmlPrimary somatosensory cortex

Requirements for figure files.

Numbering. Figures, including charts and graphs, must be numbered consecutively.

Software and format. The recommended format for all illustration files is TIF. JPG and JPEG format will not be accepted. EPS (with preview) is acceptable but not recommended. Do not submit native application formats.

Resolution. Journal quality reproduction will require greyscale and color files at resolutions yielding approximately 300 ppi. Bitmapped line art should be submitted at resolutions yielding 600-1200 ppi. These resolutions refer to the output size of the file; if you anticipate that your images will be enlarged or reduced, resolutions should be adjusted accordingly.

File names. Figure files should be given the 2- or 3-letter extension that identifies the file format used (i.e., .tif, .eps).

Color illustrations. All color images are reproduced in color online free of charge. Color images in the print version are available to authors at a charge of $350/page. A limited number of color illustrations can be published free of charge to authors (maximum one page per paper) at the discretion of the Editor. Because the number of free color pages is limited, authors are urged to carefully consider and justify any proposed use of color among their illustrations.

If color reproduction is not ordered, images will be reproduced in color online and converted to grayscale for the print version. The journal cannot accept two different figure versions so authors should plan figures, particularly graphs, with this in mind, making sure that symbols and other elements are clearly distinguishable when printed in grayscale.

3D Figures. The AJPA accepts 3D interactive models or figures that can be embedded in PDFs. See for an example and for basic instructions. Authors are responsible for 3D image assembly. Each 3D image should be submitted in an individual PDF file, and for each 3D image the author must also provide a normal figure in TIF format. The TIF figure will appear in the print version and will also serve to activate the 3D functionality in the online version. Please indicate any 3D figures in your cover letter during the submission process to ensure appropriate handling.



The AJPA abides by Wiley's ethics guidelines and by the guidelines produced by the Committee on Publication Ethics. Please contact the Editor at with any questions or concerns regarding ethics in the AJPA.


Ethical Statements

By submitting your manuscript to the AJPA, you confirm the following ethical statements.

  • Your manuscript has not been published previously and is not currently submitted to any other journal.
  • Your manuscript does not contain plagiarized content. The Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism as “theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work.”
  • Your manuscript does not contain self-plagiarized text. The Office of Research Integrity defines self-plagiarism as “reuse [of an author’s] own previously written work or data in a ‘new’ written product without letting the reader know that this material has appeared elsewhere.”
  • All authors listed in your manuscript meet the below criteria of authorship, and all those who meet these criteria are listed as authors.
    • Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
    • Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
    • Final approval of the version to be published; AND
    • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.


The AJPA uses iThenticate, a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to us, you agree that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works. All submitted manuscripts must be original and must not have been published previously either in whole or in part, except in abstract form; manuscripts published previously in another language may not be submitted. Also, manuscripts submitted to us must not be under consideration by any other journal.

Conflict of Interest

The AJPA requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, that might be perceived as influencing an author’s objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker’s fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal.

If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and to collectively list in the cover letter (if applicable) to the Editor-in-Chief, in the manuscript’s Acknowledgments section, and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.

AJPA Human and Nonhuman Subjects Statement

Authors submitting manuscripts to the AJPA that report on the results of research on living human and nonhuman subjects in any context (e.g., laboratory or field) are expected to comply with all regulations, institutional or governmental, regarding the ethical treatment of research subjects. Compliance should be indicated in the Methods or Acknowledgements sections of the manuscript. The Editor reserves the right to request access to formal documentation. Authors are also expected to comply with the American Association of Physical Anthropologists Code of Ethics as it pertains to living human and nonhuman subjects (

Genetics Papers

Genetic research papers submitted to the AJPA should not be mere descriptions of marker frequency data from a particular location or locus, but should address testable hypotheses about population history, adaptation, or phylogeny. All genetic data being newly reported in the submitted manuscript should be submitted to appropriate public databases (see below) prior to publication, and accession numbers must be included in the published manuscript. Data for which there is not an appropriate public database should be submitted for review and publication in an online supplementary file linked to the article. Appropriate public databases include:

The Genome Database (GDB)
Protein Databank (PDB)
Allele Frequency Database (ALFRED)
Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB)
Entrez Genomes
Entrez Proteins
European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL)

Note to NIH Grantees

Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see

Open Access Option

OnlineOpen, Wiley’s open access option, is available to authors who wish to make their article open access and available to all on Wiley Online Library, including those who don’t subscribe to the journal. Authors wishing to choose OnlineOpen will have an opportunity to do so after acceptance.


Signing a License Electronically

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to electronically complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

Copyright Transfer Agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions


If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

  • Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
  • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
  • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:


A set of page and illustration proofs will be sent to the author via email from the publisher. All corrections should be clearly marked.


Reprints may be purchased at It is important to order initially a sufficient quantity of reprints, since the price is substantially higher if they are ordered after the paper has been published. Reprints of announcements and book reviews are available by special arrangement only.

Author Services

Authors can easily track the production process for their accepted article in Wiley Author Services. Other benefits available at Wiley Author Services include:

  • Free access to your article for 10 of your colleagues; each author of a paper may nominate up to 10 colleagues. This feature is retrospective—even articles already published offer this feature for free colleague access.
  • Access in perpetuity to your published article.
  • Easy communication with your Production Editor via e-mail.
  • A list of your favorite journals with quick links to the Editorial Board, Aims & Scope, Author Guidelines and if applicable the Online Submission website; journals in which you have tracked production of an article are automatically added to your Favorites.
  • Electronic signing of the license agreement for your accepted article.

Self-Archiving Policy. Authors of articles published in Wiley journals are permitted to self-archive the submitted (preprint) version of the article at any time, and may self-archive the accepted (peer-reviewed) version after an embargo period. Please visit our Self-Archiving Policy page for details or refer to your Copyright Transfer Agreement.

Production Questions

Please contact the AJPA Production Editor at


The Yearbook of Physical Anthropology is an annual supplement of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, and both are publications of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. The Yearbook provides broad but thorough coverage of developments within the discipline. Yearbook articles summarize and synthesize the state of the art in a particular subfield of physical anthropology, present new paradigms for addressing important issues of general interest in the field or detail new technologies that are vital to advancing the discipline. Yearbook articles are not simply a literature review. The articles go beyond this to provide new perspectives on a field, which may include the presentation of original data and analysis. Articles on the history of physical anthropology are also included. Most articles are solicited by the Editor and Editorial Board, although unsolicited articles are also welcome. Individuals wishing to submit an article should notify the Editor before submission. All manuscripts undergo external review before they are accepted. Suggestions for topics to include in future issues of the Yearbook are welcome, and may be made to the Editor or to any member of the Editorial Board.

Manuscripts submitted to the Yearbook must be written in English. The Yearbook follows the style guidelines set out in the above Author Guidelines for the American Journal of Physical Anthropology. The Yearbook does not use the American Journal of Physical Anthropology electronic submission system. An electronic version should be sent to the Editor at the address below. Manuscripts may be submitted at any time of the year but must be received by spring for publication in following issue of the Yearbook. The Yearbook is published in January although Early View may be available in the later part of the previous year. Specific dates for an article will be worked out between the Editor and the author.

The right to reject or request revision of a manuscript is reserved by the Editor. Authors are responsible for reading and prompt correction of proofs and submission dates must be honored. Manuscripts should normally be no longer than around 60 pages. Requests for information should be directed to the Editor.

Yearbook articles are freely available online through Wiley Online Library. Instructions for citing Yearbook articles are also available on the abstract page of each Yearbook article.

Department of Anthropology
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Milwaukee, Wisconsin