Journal of Medical Virology

Cover image for Vol. 87 Issue 2


Impact Factor: 2.217

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 21/32 (Virology)

Online ISSN: 1096-9071

Author Guidelines

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Author Guidelines


AIMS AND SCOPE. Journal of Medical Virology provides a means of rapid publication of original scientific papers on fundamental as well as applied research concerning viruses affecting humans. These include reports describing the characterisation, diagnosis, epidemiology, immunology and pathogenesis of human virus infection, as well as basic studies on virus morphology, genetics, replication and host-cell interactions.

NOTE: The journal no longer accepts case studies

MANUSCRIPTS should be submitted via the on-line system at . Authors may select an Editor to process the manuscript: Professor Arie J. Zuckerman, c/o Editorial Office, UCL Medical School, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, UK.Manuscripts should be typed double spaced throughout, with line numbering. Number all pages in sequence and begin each section on a new page. Manuscripts should be divided into the following sections:

TITLE PAGE. This should contain the complete title of the paper; the names, titles, and affiliations up to six authors (lists of degrees and diplomas should not be included); the institution at which the work was performed; the name, address, telephone, and fax number for all correspondence; and a shortened title, not more than 40 characters, to be used as a running head. It is not possible to include the statements that “two authors contributed equally” or have two “first co-authors”. Authors beyond six should be included in the Acknowledgements section.

ABSTRACT. This should be a factual condensation of the entire work and include statements of the problem, method of study, results, and conclusions. The abstract may not exceed 250 words.

KEY WORDS. Supply a list of three to six key words (without repeating words in the title), pertinent to the article, which will appear below the abstract and will be included in the index at the end of the volume.

SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION. Driving usage and readership is critically important to raising the visibility of your published research. One of the key factors in sustaining long-term usage is through search engine optimization (SEO). Below is a list of suggested ways of maximizing your SEO.

1. Make sure your article title is SEO-friendly. It should be descriptive, and it must include a key phrase from your topic. Key words should appear within the title’s first 65 characters.
2. Provide up to five topic-specific key words or phrases in the key word field.
3. Be sure your key words and phrases appear in your abstract several times, but don’t go overboard or the search engine may kick you out.
4. When referencing authors, be consistent. Use their names as they generally appear in past online publications.
5. When appropriate, use your key words in article section headings.
Remember: They can’t read it if they can’t find it!

For more detailed information on SEO, including helpful examples, go to

VIRUS NOMENCLATURE. Each virus should be identified at least once, preferably in the Introduction or Materials and Methods section, using formal family, genus, and species terms, and where possible by using a precise strain designation term as developed by an internationally recognized specialty group or culture collection. Please note that the word type is not used before species designations that include a number. Formal terms used for virus families, genera, and species, should be those approved by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV): Van Regenmortel, M.H.V., Fauquet, C.M., Bishop, D.H.L., Carstens, E.B., Estes, M.K., Lemon, S.M., McGeoch, D.J., Maniloff, J., Mayo, M.A., Pringle, C.R., and Wickner, R.B. Virus Texonomy, Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses, Seventh ICTV Report, Academic Press. This volume also includes standard abbreviations for species. Once formal taxonomic names have been given in a paper, vernacular terms may be used.

Formal taxonomic nomenclature
In formal taxonomic usage, the first letters of virus order, family,subfamily, genus and species names are capitalized and the terms are printedin italics. Other words in the species name are not capitalized unless theyare proper nouns or parts of nouns, for example West Nile virus . Informal usage, the name of the taxon should precede the term for the taxonomicunit; for example: "the family Paramyxoviridae," "the genus Morbillivirus." The following represent examples of full formal taxonomic terminology:
1     Order Mononegavirales, Family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus, Species Rabies virus.
2     Family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, genus Orthopoxvirus, species Vaccinia virus.
3     Family Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus, species Poliovirus.
4     Family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, species Tomato spotted wilt virus.

Vernacular taxonomic nomenclature
In formal vernacular usage, virus order, family, subfamily, genus and species names are written in lower case Roman script; they are not capitalized, nor are they printed in italics or underlined. In informal usage,the name of the taxon should not include the formal suffix, and the name of the taxon should follow the term for the taxonomic unit; for example "the picornavirus family," "the enterovirus genus." One particular source of ambiguity in vernacular nomenclature lies in the common use of the same root terms in formal family, genus or species names. Imprecision stems from not being able to easily identify in vernacular usage which hierarchical level isbeing cited. For example, the vernacular name "paramyxovirus" might refer to the family Paramyxoviridae, the subfamily Paramyxovirinae, or one species in the genus Respirovirus, such as Human parainfluenza virus 1 .The solution in vernacular usage is to avoid ‘‘jumping’’ hierarchical levels and to add taxon identification wherever needed. For example, when citing thetaxonomic placement of Human parainfluenza virus 1, taxon identification should always be added: " Human parainfluenza virus 1 is a species in the genus Respirovirus, family Paramyxoviridae." In this example, as is usually the case, adding the information that this virus is also a member of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae and the order Mononegavirales isunnecessary.

It should be stressed that italics and capitals initial letters need to be used only if the species name refers to the taxonomic category. When the name refers to viral objects such as virions present in a preparation or seen in an electron micrograph, italics and capitals initial letters are not needed and the names are written in lower case Roman script. This also applies when the names are used in adjectival form, for instance tobacco mosaic virus polymerase. The use of italics when referring to the name of a species as a taxonomic entity signals that it has the status of an officially recognized species. The 7th ICTV Report (Van Regenmortel, M.H.V. et al., 1999, Academic Press) should be consulted to ascertain which names have been approved as official species names. When the taxonomic status of a new putative species is uncertain or its position within an established genus has not been clarified, it is considered a tentative species and its name is not written in italics although its initial letter is capitalized.


It is essential that authors whose "first" language is not English should arrange for their manuscripts to be written in idiomatic English prior to submission. Authors may use either English or American style; for the former, consult the Oxford Shorter Dictionary; for the latter, consult Merriam-Webster’s. Manuscripts reporting the results of experimental investigations on human subjects must include a statement to the effect that procedures had received official institutional and ethical approval. Refer to patients by number (or, in anecdotal reports, by anonymous initials). The pronouns "we" and "our" should not be used. Split-infinitives should be avoided. Full names or identifiable designations should not be used in the text, tables, or illustrations. All measurements are to be in metric units. Avoid excessive use of acronyms and do not use unusual abbreviations. Species names should be in italics and have the first letter of the first word capitalized. All other words in the name should not be capitalized unless they are proper nouns or parts of nouns. Place acknowledgements as the last element of the text, before references.


In the text, references with one or two authors should be cited with the author’s or authors’ surname(s) and year of publication in brackets; references with three or more authors should be cited with the first author’s surname followed by "et al." and the year of publication in brackets. In the final list, they should be in alphabetical order, and chronologically for more than one reference with the same authorship. Each reference begins with the names of all authors and the year of publication. For references to journals give titles of articles in full, inclusive pagination, and journal titles. For references to books, include all author’s names, chapter titles (if any), editor (if any), book title, city of publication, publisher’s name, and year of publication. Note the following examples:

Journal Articles:
Gordon MT, Bell SC, Mee AP, Mercer S, Carter SD, Sharpe PT. 1993. Prevalence of Canine Distemper Antibodies in the Pagetic Population. J Med Virol 40:313–317.

Zuckerman AJ, Banatvala JE, Pattison JR, editors. 2000. Principles and practice of clinical virology, 4th ed. Chichester and New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 776 p.

Chapters in Books:
Lazinski DW, Taylor JM. 1993. Structure and function of the delta virus antigens. In: Hadziyannis SJ, Taylor JM, Bonino F, editors. Hepatitis delta virus—molecular biology, pathogenesis, and clinical aspects. New York: Wiley-Liss, Inc. p 35–44.

LEGENDS. A descriptive legend must accompany each illustration and must define all abbreviations used therein.

TABLES. Each table must have a title. They should be numbered in order of appearance with Roman numerals and be keyed into the text.

ILLUSTRATIONS. To ensure highest print quality, your figures must be submitted in TIF format according to the following minimum resolutions:

1200 dpi (dots per inch) for black and white line art (simple bar graphs, charts, etc.)

300 dpi for halftones (black and white photographs)

600 dpi for combination halftones (photographs that also contain line art such as labeling or thin lines)

COLOR ART. In addition to the above resolution guidelines, color art must be submitted in CMYK color space. Do not submit color figures in RGB. All color figures will be reproduced in full color in the online edition of the journal at no cost to authors. Authors are requested to pay the cost of reproducing color figures in print.

UNACCEPTABLE FORMATS. Do not submit figures in the following formats:  JPG, GIF, PSD, CRD, PCT, PPT, PDF, XLS, DOC, BMP, 123 (or other Lotus formats).

ALL MANUSCRIPTS submitted to the Journal of Medical Virology must be submitted solely to this journal, may not have been published in any part, language, or form in another publication of any type, professional or lay, and becomes the property of the publisher. The publisher reserves copyright, and no published material may be reproduced or published elsewhere without the written permission of the publisher and the author. The journal will not be responsible for the loss of manuscripts at any time. All statements in, or omissions from, published manuscripts are the responsibility of the authors who will assist the editors by reviewing proofs before publication. Reprint order forms will be sent with page proofs. No page charges will be levied against authors or their institutions for publication in the journal.

Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest. Authors must disclose in the manuscript any financial or other conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the contents of the manuscript, including the results or interpretation of publication. All sources of financial support for the study must be disclosed and acknowledged.

Experimental Ethics. In cases where a study involves the use of live animals or human subjects, authors must include in the appropriate section of the manuscript a statement that all experiments were performed in compliance with relevant laws and institutional guidelines and in accordance with the ethical standards of the Declaration of Helsinki. The institutional committees that have approved the experiments must be named.

Authors must also include a statement that informed consent was obtained for any experimentation with human subjects including human volunteers.

Such statements should be repeated in the text of the article under the “Materials and Methods” or “Patients and Methods” section.

(This experimental ethics policy has been informed by and adapted from the ethical guidelines authored by EuCheMS-the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences. For more information, see

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

For RCUK and Wellcome Trust authors click on the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license:

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

ONLINE OPEN. OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at: Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

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