Journal of Comparative Neurology

Cover image for Vol. 523 Issue 13

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: PATRICK R. HOF

Impact Factor: 3.225

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 5/153 (Zoology); 105/252 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1096-9861

VIEW

  1. 1 - 58
  1. Research Articles

    1. Neocortical neuronal morphology in the newborn giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) and African elephant (Loxodonta africana)

      Bob Jacobs, Laura Lee, Matthew Schall, Mary Ann Raghanti, Albert H. Lewandowski, Jack J. Kottwitz, John F. Roberts, Patrick R. Hof and Chet C. Sherwood

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23841

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      The current study examined the morphology of neocortical neurons in the newborn giraffe and elephant. The findings indicate that neurons in the giraffe cortex were similar to those of other cetartiodactyls, whereas neurons in elephant cortex varied greatly from those of other eutherian mammals.

  2. Reviews

    1. Basic, specific, mechanistic? Conceptualizing musical emotions in the brain

      Diana Omigie

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23854

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      The author highlights a recent development in the field of music and emotion research, which is the increasing tendency to study music in relation to nonutilitarian emotions such as nostalgia and wonder as opposed to utilitarian emotions such as anger and fear.

    2. Evolution of the mammalian dentate gyrus

      Robert F. Hevner

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23851

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      Comparative analysis of amniotes shows that the mammalian dentate gyrus is distinguished by convolution and nonperiventricular adult neurogenesis. Both features arose in stem mammals by enhanced migration of intermediate progenitors and radial glial progenitors in the embryonic dentate migration stream.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Bilateral lesions in a specific subregion of posterior insular cortex impair conditioned taste aversion expression in rats

      Lindsey A. Schier, Ginger D. Blonde and Alan C. Spector

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23822

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      Bilateral ibotenic acid lesions were targeted to the area of insular cortex (IC) where gustatory cortex and visceral cortex (VC) are conjoined (in IC2) and/or the area of VC just posterior to that (in IC3). Rats impaired on postsurgical conditioned taste aversion (CTA) expression tests had significantly more damage in IC2 than unimpaired rats. Damage to IC3 was not associated with CTA deficits.

    2. Degeneration of proprioceptive sensory nerve endings in mice harboring amyotrophic lateral sclerosis–causing mutations

      Sydney K. Vaughan, Zachary Kemp, Theo Hatzipetros, Fernando Vieira and Gregorio Valdez

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23848

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      The authors show that Ia/II proprioceptive neurons peripheral nerve endings exhibit pathological features in two mouse lines harboring ALS-causing mutations before the appearance of obvious neurological symptoms. These neurons are critical for the proper functioning of the motor system and directly modulate the activity of α-motor neurons.

    3. Somatostatin in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla: Origins and mechanism of action

      Lama Bou Farah, Belinda R. Bowman, Phil Bokiniec, Shafinaz Karim, Sheng Le, Ann K. Goodchild and Simon McMullan

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23846

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      Somatostatin (SST) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) lowers sympathetic nerve activity, arterial pressure and heart rate and evokes apneusis when administered within the Bötzinger region. Here we describe the mechanisms responsible for the sympathoinhibitory effects of SST on bulbospinal neurons and identify brain-wide sources of RVLM SST release.

  4. Reviews

    1. Evolution of posterior parietal cortex and parietal-frontal networks for specific actions in primates

      Jon H. Kaas and Iwona Stepniewska

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23838

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      Trains of electrical microstimulation evoke different classes of ethologically relevant movements from distinct domains in posterior parietal, premotor, and motor cortices in prosimian galagos, New World monkeys, and Old World monkeys. Similar arrangements of these domains in interacting parallel networks across these primates suggests that they are basic to all primates.

  5. Research Articles

    1. Individual differences in cortical connections of somatosensory cortex are associated with parental rearing style in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

      Adele M.H. Seelke, Allison M. Perkeybile, Rebecca Grunewald, Karen L. Bales and Leah A. Krubitzer

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23837

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      Prairie voles are biparental, monogamous rodents that exhibit a range of parental styles and behaviors. By using neuroanatomical tracing techniques, we demonstrate that individual differences in parenting style are related to variation in the distribution of cortical connections.

    2. LPXRFa peptide system in the European sea bass: A molecular and immunohistochemical approach

      José A. Paullada-Salmerón, Mairi Cowan, María Aliaga-Guerrero, Ana Gómez, Silvia Zanuy, Evaristo Mañanos and José A. Muñoz-Cueto

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23833

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      This is the first study employing an antibody against the endogenous amino-acid sequence of an LPXRFa (GnIH) peptide in teleosts. This study reveals that fish GnIH cells are not restricted to the preoptic area, being also located in terminal nerve ganglion, ventral telencephalon, dorsal mesencephalic tegmentum and rostral rhombencephalon.

    3. Distinction in the immunoreactivities of two calcium-binding proteins and neuronal birthdates in the first and higher-order somatosensory thalamic nuclei of mice: Evolutionary implications

      Jiang-Yan Zhang, Yu-Tao Lin, Yuan-Yuan Gao, Chao-Xi, Xue-Bo Zhang, Xin-Wen Zhang and Shao-Ju Zeng

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23813

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      The authors demonstrate that parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB) immunoreactivities are dominant in first and higher order thalamic somatosensory regions, respectively. CB immunoreactivity and the birthdates of CB cells appear earlier during development in contrast to PV. These findings are useful for understanding the constitution and evolution of thalamic nuclei.

    4. Distribution of histaminergic neurons and their modulatory effects on oscillatory activity in the olfactory center of the terrestrial slug Limax

      Ryota Matsuo, Rena Fukata, Moeko Kumagai, Asuka Kobayashi, Suguru Kobayashi and Yuko Matsuo

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23829

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      Filed potential oscillation in the higher olfactory center is thought to reflect higher olfactory functioning in terrestrial mollusks. The authors show histaminergic projections into the olfactory center from internal areas of the brain, and a potent effect of histamine on the field potential oscillation in the terrestrial slug Limax.

    5. Development of neuromuscular organization in the ctenophore Pleurobrachia bachei

      Tigran P. Norekian and Leonid L. Moroz

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23830

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      This study provides the first description of neuromuscular development in the enigmatic ctenophores (Pleurobrachia bachei)—the basal metazoan lineage suggested to be sister to all other animals. Surprisingly, neurons appeared 2 days after myogenesis, just before the hatching of fully formed cydippid larvae, and after the emergence of distinct behavioral patterns in the embryos. Thus, the embryonic behavior associated with comb cilia beatings and initial muscle organization does not require morphologically defined neurons and their elongated neurites.

  6. Commentary

    1. Probing the proboscidea: Lessons from the past

      Mary Ann Raghanti, Nancy Todd and Patrick R. Hof

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23824

  7. Research Articles

    1. Adaptations for nocturnal and diurnal vision in the hawkmoth lamina

      Anna L. Stöckl, Willi A. Ribi and Eric J. Warrant

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23832

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      Using Golgi staining the authors classified lamina monopolar cells in the hawkmoth lamina. A quantitative analysis of the lateral extents of these neurons shows they reach more neighboring cartridges (processing units) in crepuscular/nocturnal species than in, diurnal species indicating they likely play a role in spatial summation.

    2. Transcriptome response to infraorbital nerve transection in the gonadally intact male rat barrel cortex: RNA-seq

      John J. Orczyk, Rishabh Sethia, Dominique Doster and Preston E. Garraghty

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23831

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      Using RNA-Seq, the authors show changes in gene expression for neurotrophins, ephrins, G-protein receptors, and ion channel subunits. Changes in gene expression suggest increases in neuronal excitability in response to activity deprivation.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Linear correlation between the number of olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given mouse odorant receptor gene and the total volume of the corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb

      Olaf Christian Bressel, Mona Khan and Peter Mombaerts

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23835

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      Using an empirical, “count every cell strategy” for mouse olfactory sensory neurons, the authors show a strong linear correlation between cell numbers and total glomerular volume in gene-targeted strains in which an odorant receptor gene is coexpressed with a fluorescent protein. They also use this approach to improve systematic sampling in the olfactory system.

    4. Sex, social status, and CRF receptor densities in naked mole-rats

      Annaliese K. Beery, Lucy Bicks, Skyler J. Mooney, Nastacia L. Goodwin and Melissa M. Holmes

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23834

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      Receptor autoradiography was used to quantify the densities of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor binding in the brains of naked mole-rats, a rodent species with unusual social structure. CRF1 receptor binding was higher in subordinates relative to breeders of both sexes, while CRF2 receptor binding varied with subject sex.

    5. Synaptic ultrastructure changes in trigeminocervical complex posttrigeminal nerve injury

      John Park, Van Nancy Trinh, Ilse Sears-Kraxberger, Kang-Wu Li, Oswald Steward and Z. David Luo

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23844

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      Using electron microscopy techniques, the authors show an increase in the number of R-type excitatory synaptic profiles (as shown) within laminae I of the trigeminocervical complex after trigeminal nerve injury. Synaptic alterations to the excitatory circuitry within the superficial dorsal horn may contribute to the development of orofacial pain states. d. dendrite.

    6. Effects of personality on the opioidergic modulation of the emotion warmth-liking

      Christin Burgdorf, Constanze Rinn and Gerhard Stemmler

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23847

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      Using an interactive computer task the authors show that the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (25mg), has differential effects on self-reported emotions, especially warmth-liking, and associated psychophysiological parameters, in dependence of trait attachment. Under placebo, securely-bonded female participants showed psychophysiological resilience towards social exclusion, whereas naltrexone diminished this effect.

    7. Organization and detailed parcellation of human hippocampal head and body regions based on a combined analysis of Cyto- and chemoarchitecture

      Song-Lin Ding and Gary W. Van Hoesen

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23786

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      This study has revealed detailed organization, topography and subfields of human hippocampal head and body regions on base of combined analysis of multiple cellular and chemical markers. The boundaries of these subfields are correlated with visible macroscopic landmarks such as hippocampal digitations and uncal sulcus. The resulting atlas will provide a very helpful guide for accurate parcellation of human hippocampal head and body regions on structural MRI scans and histological sections.

    8. High spatial resolution proteomic comparison of the brain in humans and chimpanzees

      Amy L. Bauernfeind, Michelle L. Reyzer, Richard M. Caprioli, John J. Ely, Courtney C. Babbitt, Gregory A. Wray, Patrick R. Hof and Chet C. Sherwood

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23777

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      Using region-specific mass spectrometry, the authors show that proteins supporting aerobic metabolism are more highly expressed in the human anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus compared with the same regions in the chimpanzee.

    9. Anatomical evidence of pruriceptive trigeminothalamic and trigeminoparabrachial projection neurons in mice

      Tasuku Akiyama, Eric Curtis, Tony Nguyen, Mirela Iodi Carstens and E. Carstens

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23839

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      Double-label strategy identified trigeminal projection neurons retrogradely labeled with fluorogold, and those labeled for Fos-immunoreactivity following cheek injection of itch or pain mediators. Inset shows double-labeled projection neuron (teal arrow) potentially signaling itch or pain, and several non-projecting Fos-reactive neurons (green) that presumably function as local interneurons

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Unsupervised lineage-based characterization of primate precursors reveals high proliferative and morphological diversity in the OSVZ

      Michael Pfeiffer, Marion Betizeau, Julie Waltispurger, Sabina Sara Pfister, Rodney J. Douglas, Henry Kennedy and Colette Dehay

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23820

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      Using unsupervised machine learning methods for Hidden Markov Trees on a macaque corticogenesis dataset, the authors validate the hypothesis that primate corticogenesis is characterized by high diversity of precursors, and stochastic bidirectional transitions. The method reveals previously undetected precursor types, and investigates the impact of bidirectionality for maintaining precursor diversity.

    11. Identification of AⅡ amacrine, displaced amacrine, and bistratified ganglion cell types in human retina with antibodies against calretinin

      Sammy C.S. Lee, Felix Weltzien, Michele C. Madigan, Paul R. Martin and Ulrike Grünert

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23821

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      The AⅡ amacrine cells are proposed as a target for gene therapy in blinding diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. We show that the AⅡ cells in human retina can be selectively identified using antibodies against the calcium binding protein calretinin. Our results raise the possibility to find a reliable optogenetics promoter for gene therapy.

    12. Prefrontal cortex afferents to the anterior temporal lobe in the Macaca fascicularis monkey

      Alicia Mohedano-Moriano, Mónica Muñoz-López, Ernesto Sanz-Arigita, Palma Pró-Sistiaga, Alino Martínez-Marcos, María Ester Legidos-Garcia, Ana María Insausti, Sandra Cebada-Sánchez, María Del Mar Arroyo-Jiménez, Pilar Marcos, Emilio Artacho-Pérula and Ricardo Insausti

      Article first published online: 7 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23805

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      Schematic representation of the dLPFC and vLPFC afferents to the ATL in Macaca fascicularis. Line thickness indicates the density of the projection. Whereas the vLPFC projects moderately to the rostral TE, the dLPFC presents sparse projections to the ATL. In contrast, the OFC and MFC display heavy projections.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Altered proliferative ability of neuronal progenitors in PlexinA1 mutant mice

      William D. Andrews, Kathryn Davidson, Nobuaki Tamamaki, Christiana Ruhrberg and John G. Parnavelas

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23806

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      Using in utero electroporation together with analysis of PlexinA1 knockout animals, the authors show that knockdown of PlexinA1 expression reduces the number of progenitor cells, and changes their orderly radial arrangement with in the ventricular zone and attachments to the ventricular wall in both dorsal and ventral forebrain.

    14. Immunogold characteristics of VGLUT3-positive GABAergic nerve terminals suggest corelease of glutamate

      Mats Julius Stensrud, Carl Johan Sogn and Vidar Gundersen

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23811

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      In the adult hippocampus inhibitory terminals harboring VGLUT3 have more glutamate but less GABA compared to inhibitory terminals lacking VGLUT3. NMDA glutamate receptors are associated with the VGLUT3 positive inhibitory synapses. Many receptors might be located presynaptically, but they could also have a postsynaptic localization. These findings suggest that glutamate is released from VGLUT3 positive GABAergic terminals to activate NMDA receptors.

    15. Comparative analysis of glucagonergic cells, glia, and the circumferential marginal zone in the reptilian retina

      Levi Todd, Lilianna Suarez, Natalie Squires, Christopher Paul Zelinka, Kevin Gribbins and Andy J. Fischer

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23823

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      Among different species of reptiles, the retinas of turtles possessed a circumferential marginal zone (CMZ) of proliferating progenitors at the retinal margin. This is similar to the CMZ described for fish, amphibians, and birds.

  8. Review

    1. Evolution of the hippocampus in reptiles and birds

      Georg F. Striedter

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23803

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      The hippocampus of mammals and sauropsids (reptiles and birds) evolved along divergent trajectories but exhibits some convergent similarities, such as an expanded system of intrahippocampal collaterals in both mammals and birds.

  9. Research Articles

    1. Identification of B6SJL mSOD1G93A mouse subgroups with different disease progression rates

      Melissa M. Haulcomb, Nichole A. Mesnard-Hoaglin, Richard J. Batka, Rena M. Meadows, Whitney M. Miller, Kathryn P. Mcmillan, Todd J. Brown, Virginia M. Sanders and Kathryn J. Jones

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23814

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      The present study reveals two subpopulations of mSOD1G93A mice with differing disease progression rates, a FPG and a SPG. Enhanced progression of motor deficits and increased disease-induced molecular expression within the facial motor nucleus of the FPG suggest a more severe disease phenotype in comparison with the SPG. We performed a facial nerve axotomy to standardize the onset of axonal disconnection. However, this failed to abolish the increased molecular expression within the facial nucleus of the FPG, suggesting that the onset of the initial disease pathology alone does not account for the differences in the disease progression rates.

    2. Evaluation of the expression pattern of rAAV2/1, 2/5, 2/7, 2/8, and 2/9 serotypes with different promoters in the mouse visual cortex

      Isabelle Scheyltjens, Marie-Eve Laramée, Chris Van den Haute, Rik Gijsbers, Zeger Debyser, Veerle Baekelandt, Samme Vreysen and Lutgarde Arckens

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23819

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      By injecting adeno-associated viral vectors carrying different promoter sequences in the mouse primary visual cortex, the authors showed serotype- and promoter-dependent differences in expression spread and specificity. This information can be useful when choosing a proper viral vector and promoter to target specific cell types in specific cortical regions.

    3. Evidence for involvement of a limbic paraventricular hypothalamic inhibitory network in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis adaptations to repeated stress

      Jason J. Radley and Paul E. Sawchenko

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23815

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      We previously identified a discrete region within the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) that intercedes for acute stress-inhibitory limbic cortical influences. Evidence from this study suggests that differential adaptations in GABAergic neurons in the BST and functionally connected limbic forebrain cell groups contribute to modifications in chronic stress-induced HPA axis output.

    4. Effects of the jimpy mutation on mouse retinal structure and function

      Anahit Hovhannisyan, Boris Benkner, Antje Biesemeier, Ulrich Schraermeyer, Maria Kukley and Thomas A. Münch

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23818

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      In the Jimpy mutant mouse, axons in the central nervous system do not myelinate. The authors show that the lack of myelination in the optic nerve has surprisingly little consequences for retinal function.

    5. The mummified brain of a pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) compared with the brain of the extant African elephant (Loxodonta africana)

      Anastasia S. Kharlamova, Sergei V. Saveliev, Albert V. Protopopov, Busisiwe C. Maseko, Adhil Bhagwandin and Paul R. Manger

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23817

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      Here we provide a comparative anatomy of the brain of the Woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) (left) and African elephant (Loxodonta africana) (right) based on visual inspection of the actual specimens and a qualitative and quantitative comparison of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data. We observed many similarities between the woolly mammoth and African elephant brain structures. Our findings indicate that a specific brain type representative of the Elephantidae is likely to be a feature of this mammalian family.

    6. Role of ortho-retronasal olfaction in mammalian cortical evolution

      Timothy B. Rowe and Gordon M. Shepherd

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23802

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      Evidence from paleontology and physiology suggests that ortho-retronasal olfaction played a critical role at three stages of mammalian cortical evolution: early brain development was driven partly by ortho-retronasal olfaction; the bauplan for neocortex had higher-level association functions derived from olfactory cortex; and human cortical evolution was enhanced by ortho-retronasal olfaction.

    7. Primary afferent neurons containing calcitonin gene-related peptide but not substance P in forepaw skin, dorsal root ganglia, and spinal cord of mice

      Garreth R. Kestell, Rebecca L. Anderson, Jennifer N. Clarke, Rainer V. Haberberger and Ian L. Gibbins

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23804

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      The authors used multiple-labeling immunohistochemistry in combination with axonal tracing and high-resolution image analysis to characterize a subpopulation of large CGRP-expressing DRG neurons that lack SP and to determine their peripheral and central projections. The results suggest a possible function in mechanoception rather than nociception.

    8. Aging Drosophila melanogaster display altered pre- and postsynaptic ultrastructure at adult neuromuscular junctions

      Nicole Wagner, Ulrike Laugks, Manfred Heckmann, Esther Asan and Kirsa Neuser

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23798

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      Using a combination of fluorescence and electron microscopy, the authors describe ultrastructural synaptic changes associated with age in Drosophila, including bouton growth, accumulation of early endosomes, multivesicular bodies, and extracellular vesicles, as well as expansion of postsynaptic glutamate receptor fields.

    9. Sources of input to the rostromedial tegmental nucleus, ventral tegmental area, and lateral habenula compared: A study in rat

      Leora Yetnikoff, Anita Y. Cheng, Heather N. Lavezzi, Kenneth P. Parsley and Daniel S. Zahm

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23797

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      The vast majorities of inputs to the rostromedial tegmental nucleus, ventral tegmental area and lateral habenula arise in a large pool of structures of which each provides a small percentage. A few structures, which differ for each of the targets, provide more substantial numbers of innervating neurons.

    10. Expression of peroxiredoxins and thioredoxins in the mouse spinal cord during embryonic development

      Marc Pirson and Bernard Knoops

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23807

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      In situ detection of specific antibodies was used to study the distribution of antioxidant enzymes, peroxiredoxins and thioredoxins, in the embryonic mouse spinal cord. The authors report several striking expression patterns, including strong expression of these enzymes in spinal cord motor neurons.

    11. Anatomical organization of the visual dorsal ventricular ridge in the chick (Gallus gallus): Layers and columns in the avian pallium

      Patricio Ahumada-Galleguillos, Máximo Fernández, Gonzalo J. Marin, Juan C. Letelier and Jorge Mpodozis

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23808

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      Using “in vitro” tract tracing and intracellular fillings techniques, the authors show that the avian visual DVR is composed of three main layers, highly interconnected through a system of discrete columnar bundles of axons reciprocally and homotopically arranged. These results stress the similarities between sauropsid and mammalian pallial organization.

  10. Topical Review

    1. Emotional dysfunctions in neurodegenerative diseases

      Leonie A.K. Löffler, Sina Radke, Carmen Morawetz and Birgit Derntl

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23816

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      Emotional disturbances such as emotion recognition deficits and depression are frequently observed in neurodegeneratives diseases such as Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Preliminary results further support emotional dysregulation in these diseases, underscoring the importance of more research in this field to improve patient well-being.

  11. Research Articles

    1. Neuronal organization of the brain in the adult amphioxus (Branchiostoma lanceolatum): A study with acetylated tubulin immunohistochemistry

      Antonio Castro, Manuela Becerra, María Jesús Manso and Ramón Anadón

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23785

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      The authors, using α-tubulin immunohistochemistry, report different types of neurons and their distributions in the brain of the adult amphioxus. The cellular organization revealed in this study appears far more complex than that revealed in developmental studies of larvae and quite different from that of the brain of vertebrates.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      S-phase duration is the main target of cell cycle regulation in neural progenitors of developing ferret neocortex

      Miguel Turrero García, YoonJeung Chang, Yoko Arai and Wieland B. Huttner

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23801

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      Using cumulative EdU labeling, the authors calculated the duration of each cell cycle phase in the diverse neural progenitor types in the developing ferret neocortex. They found that the duration of S-phase is the major source of variability between progenitors with varying degrees of self-renewal versus differentiation potential.

    3. Spinal cord neuron inputs to the cuneate nucleus that partially survive dorsal column lesions: A pathway that could contribute to recovery after spinal cord injury

      Chia-Chi Liao, Gabriella E. DiCarlo, Omar A. Gharbawie, Hui-Xin Qi and Jon H. Kaas

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23783

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      The authors used anatomical tracing methods to reveal an alternative source of spinal cord connections that may contribute to cortical reactivation after injury. Approximately 5% of projections from second-order spinal cord neurons below the lesion survive extensive dorsal column lesions, and continue to project to ipsilateral cuneate nucleus through lateral funiculus.Indexing terms: second-order spinal cord pathway; cuneate nucleus; dorsal column lesion; cortical reactivation; lateral funiculus

    4. Long-term neuroplasticity of the face primary motor cortex and adjacent somatosensory cortex induced by tooth loss can be reversed following dental implant replacement in rats

      Limor Avivi-Arber, Jye-Chang Lee, Mandeep Sood, Flavia Lakschevitz, Michelle Fung, Maayan Barashi-Gozal, Michael Glogauer and Barry J. Sessle

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23793

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      Tooth extraction induces decreases in jaw (AD) and tongue (GG) motor representations in the face primary motor (face-M1) and somatosensory (face-S1) cortex that are restored or even enhanced following dental implant replacement. This neuroplastic changes may relate to how subjects adapt to tooth loss and their replacement with dental implants.

    5. Direct projections from the dorsal premotor cortex to the superior colliculus in the macaque (macaca mulatta)

      Claudia Distler and Klaus-Peter Hoffmann

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23794

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      The dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) is part of the cortical network for arm movements during reach-related behavior. We here investigate the neuronal projections from the PMd to the midbrain superior colliculus (SC), which also contains reach-related neurons that integrate the SC into a cortico-subcortical network responsible for initiation and modulation of goal-directed arm movements. By using anterograde transport of neuronal tracers, we found that PMd projects most strongly to the deep layers of the lateral part of the SC and the underlying reticular formation corresponding to locations where reach-related neurons have been recorded, and from where descending tectofugal projections arise. This projection pattern supports the involvement of the SC in the skeletomotor system and provides the PMd with a further path to elicit forelimb movements.

    6. Connexin50 couples axon terminals of mouse horizontal cells by homotypic gap junctions

      Birthe Dorgau, Regina Herrling, Konrad Schultz, Helena Greb, Jasmin Segelken, Sebastian Ströh, Petra Bolte, Reto Weiler, Karin Dedek and Ulrike Janssen-Bienhold

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23779

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      Horizontal cells form separate, electrically coupled networks among their dendrites and axon terminals. Connexin50 is predominantly expressed on axon terminals and hardly on dendrites. It does not colocalize with connexin57, expressed in both compartments. Thus, independent sets of homotypic gap junctions mediate horizontal cell coupling in the mouse retina.

    7. Light-evoked S-nitrosylation in the retina

      Ryan E. Tooker and Jozsef Vigh

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23780

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      Through immunohistochemistry and qualitative proteomics, the authors demonstrate that light-dependent NO production leads to extensive S-nitrosylation in the vertebrate retina. These findings expand the role of S-nitrosylation beyond neurodegenerative diseases and strongly suggest that this process is a significant post-translational modification affecting an array of proteins under physiological conditions.

    8. Postnatal accumulation of intermediate filaments in the cat and human primary visual cortex

      Seoho Song, Donald E. Mitchell, Nathan A. Crowder and Kevin R. Duffy

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23781

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      By using western blotting and immunohistochemistry, the authors quantified the level of intermediate filaments in cat and human primary visual cortex across postnatal development. In both species, levels were low during the critical period and quickly increased thereafter to eventually reach high and stable adult levels.

    9. Cortico-cortical connectivity within ferret auditory cortex

      Jennifer K. Bizley, Victoria M. Bajo, Fernando R. Nodal and Andrew J. King

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23784

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      A series of tracer injections was made into physiologically identified subfields of ferret auditory cortex. The authors describe the patterns of anterograde and retrograde projections between primary and secondary areas in this species and demonstrate that although there is considerable overlap, parallel anterior and posterior processing networks may exist.

    10. Glial and axonal perikaryal coverage and somatic spines in the posterodorsal medial amygdala of male and cycling female rats

      Mariana Zancan, Aline Dall'Oglio, Taís Malysz Sarzenski, Martin Ian Maher, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura and Alberto A. Rasia-Filho

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23782

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      The posterodorsal medial amygdala is a sex-steroid-sensitive area that modulates reproductive behavior in rats. In proestrus, females have a higher density of somatic spines with different shapes than males or females in the other estrous cycle phases.

    11. Convergence of lemniscal and local excitatory inputs on large GABAergic tectothalamic neurons

      Tetsufumi Ito, Hiroyuki Hioki, Jaerin Sohn, Shinichiro Okamoto, Takeshi Kaneko, Satoshi Iino and Douglas L. Oliver

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23789

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Large GABAergic neurons (blue) in the inferior colliculus (IC) receive convergent axosomatic excitatory inputs from both local IC neurons and projection neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, and intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (red).

    12. Cerebellar premotor output neurons collateralize to innervate the cerebellar cortex

      Brenda D. Houck and Abigail L. Person

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23787

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our work provides anatomical evidence that cerebellar output neurons innervating premotor structures such as red nucleus and ventrolateral thalamus collateralize to also innervate the granule cell layer where they contact granule and Golgi cells.

  12. Commentary

  13. Research Articles

    1. Differential modification of cortical and thalamic projections to cat primary auditory cortex following early- and late-onset deafness

      Nicole Chabot, Blake E. Butler and Stephen G. Lomber

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23790

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      Following sensory deprivation, primary somatosensory and visual cortices undergo crossmodal plasticity, which subserves the remaining modalities. However, controversy remains regarding the neuroplastic potential of primary auditory cortex (A1). The results of the current study demonstrate that patterns of projections to A1 in the cat are altered somewhat following deafness, with statistically significant changes occurring within the auditory thalamus (dorsal and ventral nuceli of the medial geniculate) and some cortical areas (second auditory cortex, dorsal zone, anterior auditory field). We also provide anatomical evidence for small-scale crossmodal changes in projections to A1, suggesting that potential crossmodal activation of primary auditory cortex may be dependent on the age of deafness onset.

    2. Sociality and the telencephalic distribution of corticotrophin-releasing factor, urocortin 3, and binding sites for CRF type 1 and type 2 receptors: A comparative study of eusocial naked mole-rats and solitary Cape mole-rats

      Clive W. Coen, Theodosis Kalamatianos, Maria K. Oosthuizen, Ravi Poorun, Christopher G. Faulkes and Nigel C. Bennett

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23796

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      This comparative study focuses on the telencephalic CRF system in eusocial naked mole-rats and solitary Cape mole-rats to elucidate the neurobiology and evolution of mammalian social behavior. The results are placed in the context of wide-ranging neuroanatomical and behavioral studies on various species and lead the authors to speculate that the abundance of CRFR1 binding in the nucleus accumbens of Cape mole-rats reflects their lack of affiliative behavior.

    3. Morphology, innervation, and peripheral sensory cells of the siphon of aplysia californica

      Ian D. Carrigan, Roger P. Croll and Russell C. Wyeth

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23795

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Immunohistochemistry revealed five peripheral neuron types (including four putative sensory cells) and three structurally distinct plexuses in the siphon of Aplysia californica. This diverse and extensive peripheral nervous system may contribute substantially to the various functions of the siphon, including the withdrawal responses used as model systems for learning and memory.

    4. Corticalization of motor control in humans is a consequence of brain scaling in primate evolution

      Suzana Herculano-Houzel, Jon H. Kaas and Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23792

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Faster scaling of the number of neurons in motor cortex over spinal cord in primates explains the corticalization of motor control in humans.

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