Journal of Comparative Neurology

Cover image for Vol. 524 Issue 6


Impact Factor: 3.225

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 5/154 (Zoology); 106/252 (Neurosciences)

Online ISSN: 1096-9861

Author Guidelines

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Author Guidelines

The Journal of Comparative Neurology requires electronic submission of all manuscripts via our website, at 

General Instructions

Manuscripts must be written in American English. Because nearly half of all manuscripts submitted to the Journal originate from outside English-speaking countries, we strongly recommend that authors who are not native English speakers ask a colleague or for-hire editor whose native language is English to help them edit their work. The Journal staff will not be able to provide this service, and if papers are not written in easily understandable, idiomatic English, they will be returned to the authors without review.

Measurements should be made using the metric system, and abbreviations for measurements should adhere to the meter-kilogram-second-Ampere (MKSA) international system of physical units. Abbreviations may be used extensively in the figures, and should be accompanied by a table of abbreviations used in figures. Abbreviations should be used sparingly in the text, as extensive use of abbreviations makes the work difficult to follow for non-specialists. In general, no more than about six common abbreviations should be used in the text of any one paper. Each abbreviation should be spelled out the first time it is used in the Abstract, in the Text, and in the Figure Legends or table of abbreviations used in the figures (up to three times if it is used in all three segments of the manuscript).

In addition to publishing original research articles, Journal of Comparative Neurology also welcomes the following article type submissions:

Topical reviews: The Journal of Comparative Neurology welcomes scholarly reviews from experts in the field on any topic within systems neuroscience. The preferred format for Reviews is that of a focused, topical paper that helps specialists to remain up to date with the information published in their subject while being informative for the non-specialist. As such reviews should focus on recent developments in a given field, describe current trends and as applicable methodologies, and provide a critical opinion intended to a broad readership. Authors of reviews should avoid concentrating solely of preferentially on their own work. Such reviews should be about 3000 words, not including a 150-words abstract, references, figures, and tables. In this format, references should be kept to a concise list reflecting the current state of the field.
Classic reviews: Upon consulting with the Editor-in-Chief, the journal will consider larger scale scholarly reviews that represent comprehensive overviews of a field, including an historical perspective. Authors of such reviews can consider using the archival materials of the journal available on-line from the first issue in 1891 to enhance the historical content of their paper. Whereas there is no length limit imposed on these reviews, adopting an efficient style is recommended. These reviews should be accompanied by a 250-words abstract, and a table of contents listing the major subheadings.

Toolbox papers: While the Journal of Comparative Neurology does not publish papers of a purely technical or methodological nature (so-called “methods papers”), certain research articles, which still address a scientific question in systems neuroscience, may include, as a major component of the work, a novel technological development not previously reported, and presented as a crucial part of the methods and results. Such papers will follow the usual layout of a standard research paper with an extended Materials and Methods that provides all of the necessary details of the novel technology, including description of algorithms and validation experiments, to make it accessible to the readership. Such papers will be marked as Toolbox papers to reflect their particular contents. Note that simple improvements on established methodologies do not befit this format.

All manuscripts must include the following elements. They should be submitted on-line, with standard file name extensions, in the following order:

Text of paper. This should contain a Title Page (including acknowledgments for support), Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Other Acknowledgments, Literature Cited, Footnotes, and Figure Legends, in that order. The file should be named with the last name of the first author-text. Text files should be in Word (.doc), WordPerfect (.wpd), or RTF (.rtf) format.

Table files. Authors are encouraged to prepare tables using the table tool in Word. Each table should be contained in a separate file, and the files should be named by table number (i.e., Table 1, Table 2...). Tables that require extensive formatting may be submitted as image files, using .tif format, but should be named by table number.

Figure files. Each file should contain a single figure and be named figure number (i.e., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.), and should be in TIFF (.tif) format only, at a resolution of 300 dpi. Please do NOT use JPEG (.jpg), GIF (.gif), EPS (.eps), PowerPoint (.ppt), Portable Document (.pdf), or Word (.doc) files, or proprietary file types that are not interchangeable among programs (e.g., Illustrator, Canvas, or Photoshop).

Graphical Abstract. NB: This feature is a part of the online article format and will appear in the online Table of Contents of each issue of the journal. The graphical abstract provides readers with a visual representation of the conclusions and an efficient way to appreciate the key finding and main message of the work. Please upload a short statement of 50 words or less (1-2 sentences), together with an illustration (TIFF or EPS) describing the context and significance of the findings for the broader JCN readership to attract the attention of non-specialists. A fictive example is provided below.

"Using live 2-photon microscopy combined with an ultrastructural approach, the authors show that docking vesicles in excitatory thalamocortical synapses represent only a very small subset of the vesicles. This population of vesicles, specifically distributed at presynaptic sites, is crucial for efficient neuromodulatory processes."

The text file should be of DOC format and be designated as the Graphical Abstract Text filetype in ScholarOne Manuscripts. The intent of this text is to summarize the key results and major conceptual advance of the article, providing readers with an efficient understanding of the main take-home message of the paper, without including extensive experimental details. The image should be a single image not containing multiple panels. It is meant to represent one key aspect of the results. The selected image must be a figure or part of a figure that is included in the paper. This is not a vehicle to publish supplementary information not directly reported in the paper. To prepare the image, select an image or graphic that is easy to read and as much as possible devoid of cluttering items, conveying clear, non-speculative, visual information about the biological context of the findings. Labels, while useful, must be kept to a minimum. The image should be provided in one of the following height and width configurations: 400 x 300 pixel, 300 x 400 pixel, or 400 x 400 pixel, and at a maximal resolution of 72 dpi. Please use Arial or Helvetica font with a size of 10–12 points; preferred file types are EPS and TIFF. When uploading, please designate the image as Graphical Abstract Image in ScholarOne Manuscripts. 

Associate Editors

When submitting a manuscript to JCN, please specify which of our ten Associate Editors you would like to evaluate your work, based on their areas of expertise.

Edward M. Callaway, Salk Institute for Biological Studies: Visual System, Cerebral Cortex

Thomas E. Finger, University of Colorado School of Medicine: Sensory Systems, Neurobiology of Non-mammalian Vertebrates

Gert Holstege, University of Queensland: Brainstem and Spinal Cord Sensorimotor Systems

Jeffrey H. Kordower, Rush University Medical Center: Neurodegeneration and CNS Repair, Basal Forebrain, Cerebral Cortex

Ian A. Meinertzhagen, Dalhousie University: Invertebrate Neurobiology, Retina

Kathleen S. Rockland, Boston University: Neocortex and Hippocampus, Connections and Cell Types

John L. R. Rubenstein, University of California–San Francisco: Developmental Neurobiology

Paul E. Sawchenko, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies: Neuroendocrine Control and Chemical Neuroanatomy

Oswald Steward, University of California–Irvine: Neuronal Plasticity and Response to Injury, Hippocampal Formation, and Auditory System 

Leslie G. Ungerleider, National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Brain and Cognition: Brain Imaging and Visual Cortical Anatomy 


Referrals to the Open Access Journal, Brain and Behavior 

The Journal of Comparative Neurology will provide authors of good quality research that is outside the Journal's scope or that cannot be published in the Journal due to limited space with a referral and option to transfer their manuscript to Wiley’s Open Access Journal, Brain and Behavior.  Authors will be offered the option of having the paper, along with any related peer reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Editor of Brain and Behavior. The transfer will occur on-line and guarantee the anonymity of the peer-review process.  Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place.  The Editor of Brain and Behavior will accept submissions that report well-conducted research which reaches the standard acceptable for publication. Accepted papers can be published rapidly, typically within 20 days of acceptance.  Brain and Behavior is a Wiley Open Access journal and article publication fees apply.  For more information please go to

Peer Review Scorecard Pilot

The Journal of Comparative Neurology is participating in Wiley's pilot of transferable peer review in which reviewers complete a standard scorecard in addition to their usual review. Authors of original research articles rejected with completed scorecards will be invited to transfer the manuscript, reviews, and scorecard to any of the other journals participating in the pilot. Authors will have the opportunity to revise their manuscript according to the review comments prior to transfer if they wish to do so. A list of the participating journals and more information about the pilot can be found here. We believe that this system of preserving original peer review for the next journal's use will decrease repetitious review, save authors, reviewers and editors valuable time and significantly increase the speed to publication for many papers.

“Resource Identification Initiative” Pilot

The Journal of Comparative Neurology is participating in the Resource Identification Initiative, which aims to promote research resource identification, discovery, and reuse. This initiative, led by the Neuroscience Information Framework and the Oregon Health & Science University Library, provides unique identifiers for antibodies, model organisms, and tools such as software and databases. These IDs, called Research Resource Identifiers (RRIDs), are machine-readable and can therefore be used to search for all papers in which a particular resource was used and to increase access to critical data to help researchers identify suitable reagents and tools.

As part of this pilot project, we ask authors to use RRIDs to cite the resources used in your research where applicable in the text, exactly as you would a regular citation or Genbank Accession number. For antibodies, we ask that you please include in your citation the vendor, catalogue number, and RRID both in the text upon first mention in the methods section, and in your antibody table (see Materials and Methods section). For software tools and databases, please provide the name of the resource followed by the resource website if available, and the RRID. For model organisms, the RRID alone is sufficient.

We also ask that you please include the RIIDs in the list of keywords associated with your manuscript.

To Obtain Research Resource Identifiers (RRIDs):

1. Use the Resource Identification Portal, created by the Resource Identification Initiative Working Group.

2. Search for your research resource (please the section titled “Search Features and Tips” for more information)

3. Click on the “Cite This” button to obtain the citation and insert the citation into your manuscript text.

If you have a resource that is not found within the Portal, we encourage you to register the resource with the appropriate resource authority. Information on how to do this is provided in the “Resource Citation Guidelines” section of the Portal.

If you experience any difficulties obtaining identifiers, please contact for assistance.

Example Citations:

Antibodies: "Wnt3 was localized using a rabbit polyclonal antibody C64F2 against Wnt3 (Cell Signaling Technology, Cat# 2721S, RRID: AB_2215411)"

Model Organisms: "Experiments were conducted in c. elegans strain SP304 (RRID:CGC_SP304)"

Tools,Software, and Databases: "Image analysis was conducted with CellProfiler Image Analysis Software, V2.0 (, RRID:nif-0000-00280)"

Text of Paper 

The text of the paper should be prepared in 12 point Times Roman or Arial font, with a line of 6 or 6.5 inches (155–170 mm) width. Spelling for non-technical terms should be that recommended in the current Webster’s International Dictionary. For anatomical terms, the anglicized form of the word should be used (not Latin) whenever possible. Please avoid slang, colloquialisms, and laboratory jargon, especially in the title of the paper.

Title page. The title page should contain the title of the paper. Abbreviations should not be used. Please include names of species used when possible.

Authors’ names: Please use full names without degrees or titles. Each author name should carry a superscript number, assigned in ascending numerical order, to indicate institutional affiliation. Authors should include all individuals who contributed to the conception and design or to the analysis and interpretation of the work. Purely technical contributions or providing materials or equipment generally does not merit authorship. All authors must agree to be listed, and to the order of listing.

Institutional affiliations: These should be in the same order as the numbers in the authors’ superscripts, and should include Department, Institution, City, State or Province if applicable, Mail Code, and Country.

Abbreviated title, or running head, not to exceed 48 letters and spaces.

Name of Associate Editor to whom the manuscript is being submitted.

Key words, including 3–6 words or phrases that are included in the text but not in the title of the paper that identify its content. We also ask that any Resource Identifiers (RRIDs) be listed as keywords as mentioned above in the section entitled "Resource Identification Initiative".

Corresponding author, address, phone, fax, and email addresses.

Support or grant information should be provided in a footnote on the title page and should include the grant sponsor and number.

Abstract. The abstract should be concise, consisting of 250 words or less. It should frame the biological problem that the paper addresses, indicate the method of approach and species of animals used, and provide a brief summary of the results and conclusions. It should be intelligible without reference to the rest of the paper. Abbreviations should be used sparingly in the abstract and should be spelled out the first time they are used. References to the literature should be avoided in the Abstract, but if used, must include the full reference.

Introduction. The introduction should frame the scientific issues that motivate the study. It is not enough simply to identify a known pathway or its neurotransmitter in a different species. For papers to reach a publishable level of priority, the authors must make the case for how their ideas illuminate some principles of systems neuroscience. Use of animals from different species should be justified in terms of understanding how differences in their adaptations help to elucidate the structure and function of the nervous system, not as an excuse for repeating work that has already been done in other species.

The introduction should not contain statements about the actual results or their significance. These belong in the Results and Discussion sections.

Materials and Methods. The animals, supplies, and equipment used should be described in detail. For animals it is important to define species, strain, sex, age, supplier, and numbers of animals used (as well as distribution of animals across groups). If genetically modified mice are used, it is critical to specify the genetic background, including the generation since the founder and the number of backcrosses (if applicable) to an inbred strain.

It is critical that all manuscripts employing animals identify whether the work that is being reported was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee at the site of the work. Any work that is done without such approval, or which is judged by the referees or the editors to involve cruelty or abuse of animals, will not be published.

The sources of all materials and equipment must be identified. For chemical probes it is important to include the exact sequence of the nucleic acids or peptides against which the probe was raised. Otherwise, the work is inherently not repeatable. For antibodies, please prepare a table listing in the first column the name of the antibody; in the second column the exact structure of the immunogen against which the animal was immunized (note that a vague reference to a part of the molecule is not acceptable); in the third column the manufacturer, catalog or lot number, the RRID (see Resource Identification Intiative section above), species it was raised in, and whether it is a monoclonal or polyclonal antibody; in the fourth column the concentration at which the antibody was used. In the text of the Methods section, include a section titled Antibody Characterization, in which there is a brief paragraph for each antibody used, explaining how it was characterized, and providing appropriate controls. Characterization includes information that assures the reader that the antibody specifically recognizes its supposed target. This can include Western blots (for which it is necessary to indicate the species and tissue examined, and the pattern of bands stained and their molecular weight), radioimmunoassay or ELISA, or other types of experiments. Controls may include preadsorption with the original antigen; attempts to stain tissue from knockout animals; comparisons with the in situ hybridization pattern, etc. For antibodies used as tissue markers (rather than to establish a novel and unique localization of the antigen), it is sufficient to indicate that the antibody stains the appropriate pattern of cellular morphology and distribution as demonstrated in previous publications, which should be cited. Note that we need the manuscript to actually give the evidence for characterization and specificity. Simple references to other papers where characterization has been done are not acceptable.

JCN now has an antibody database available on-line through clicking the icon on the lower right of the journal home page. This database lists antibodies used in papers in JCN since 2006. This information can be used to look for antibodies that have met the stringent standards of JCN, and to find papers that contain information on the characterization of those antibodies.

All methods of analysis and statistical testing must be identified and explained in detail. In particular, it is necessary to give methods for counting cells or other structures in tissue sections in detail, and to use appropriate methods either of design-based stereology or post-hoc correction for the size of the objects being counted. This is explained in the reviews by S. Geuna (Appreciating the difference between design-based and model-based sampling strategies in quantitative morphology of the nervous system. J Comp Neurol 427:333–339, 2000) and R.W. Guillery (On counting and counting errors. J Comp Neurol 447:1–7, 2002). Whatever method is chosen must be described and justified. Additional information and references on use of stereologic approaches can be found in the review by C. Schmitz and P.R. Hof (Design-based stereology in neuroscience. Neuroscience 130:813-831, 2005), in the practical book by P.R. Mouton (Principles and practices of unbiased stereology, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002), and the monograph by Glaser et al. (Stereology for Biological Research with a Focus on Neuroscience, MBF Press, 2006).

For digital photography, it is necessary to identify what forms of digital manipulation were employed in preparing the images (e.g., adjusting brightness, contrast, sharpness, evenness of illumination, etc.). The purpose of figures is to present to the audience an overview of the observations, not to provide a faithful recreation of artifacts. Thus, images can be adjusted and even retouched, but if they are manipulated in any way, it is important to identify those changes in the Methods section (or in the figure legend if it applies to a single image).

Results. The results of the study should be laid out in a series of declarative paragraphs. Often the reporting of the results can be clearer if broken down into subsections. All figures and tables must be cited in the text, and must be numbered in the order of their text citation. The Results section should not include long passages about the rationale for each experiment (which belong in the Introduction) or the methods used (which belong in the Materials and Methods), nor should it include justification or discussion of the results (which belong in the Discussion section). In general, if a passage in the Results involves the use of numerous citations, the authors ought to consider whether that material better belongs in the Introduction or the Discussion.

Discussion. The Discussion should begin with a statement of the important findings of the paper. Subsequent sections can address technical issues, analysis of the results, and the implications of the work. Again, it is often helpful to break down the Discussion into subsections that focus on particular topics. The Discussion should not contain a summary or resume, as this is the function of the Abstract. However, it is proper to include a section that draws together the results and expands upon conclusions that may be drawn from the work.

Other acknowledgments. These may include thanks to technicians or colleagues who have helped with the work or provided materials. All who are acknowledged must be informed of that fact by the authors, and agree to be listed.

Conflict of interest statement. All authors must disclose any known or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. If there is no identified conflict, state so. This declaration must be made within a Conflict of Interest Statement section of the main article and will be published in the journal.

Role of authors. All authors listed on the paper must have contributed significantly to the elaboration of the paper and/or to the research that led to preparation of the manuscript. The role of each author must be described in a paragraph after the Acknowledgements and the Conflict of Interest disclosure. It can adopt the following format:

All authors had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Names or Initials. Acquisition of data: Names or Initials. Analysis and interpretation of data: Names or Initials. Drafting of the manuscript: Names or Initials. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Names or Initials. Statistical analysis: Names or Initials. Obtained funding: Names or Initials. Administrative, technical, and material support: Names or Initials. Study supervision: Names or Initials.

Data Accessbility. To enable readers to locate archived data from Journal of Comparative Neurology papers, we ask that authors include a 'Data Accessibility' section just before the References. This should list the database(s) and URL(s) or dataset DOIs for all data associated with the manuscript. Authors may now also deposit large datasets and data files, for example, high resolution image data, onto the Biolucida Cloud server maintained by MBF Biosciences. This server hosts large image datasets associated with papers published in our journal which would otherwise be too large to publish with the paper itself. The cost is covered by our publisher, John Wiley and Sons, and therefore would be at no additional cost to you. Your data would be bi-directionally linked between the database and your final published manuscript and made freely available to the public for viewing. For more infrormation, please inquire with our editors.

Literature cited. All references cited in the text (and only those cited in the text) should be included. In the text, references should be cited by authors’ names and year of publication. One or two authors should be cited by name; for three or more, the first author is cited followed by et al.:

…studies by Sawchenko (2003) reveal…

…studies by Sawchenko and Schiltz (2003) reveal…

…studies by Sawchenko et al. (2003) reveal…

References that are not cited by name should be included at the end of a phrase or sentence in parentheses, in chronological order, separated by semicolons, except for two or more papers by the same authors, which should be separated by commas. References to more than one paper in the same year should be designated by letters:

...(Canteras, 1999; Holstege and Saper, 2002; Hansen et al., 2003a, 2003b)


The citations in the Literature Cited should be in alphabetical order by authors, then chronological order by year. For papers with identical authors and years, the citations should be alphabetical by journal, and then chronological by appearance in the journal:

Kuroda M, Price JL. 1991a. Synaptic organization of projections from basal forebrain structures to the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus of the rat. J Comp Neurol 303:513–533.

Kuroda M, Price JL. 1991b. Ultrastructure and synaptic organization of axon terminals from brainstem structures to the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus of the rat. J Comp Neurol 313:539–552.

Authors are referred to recent papers published in the Journal for specifics of citation style for different types of communications. The Journal of Comparative Neurology citation formats are contained within Endnote and Reference Manager, and can be downloaded from

Abbreviations of journal names should conform to Index Medicus. Only papers that are in press (accepted for publication in final form) or in print may be cited. Work that is “in preparation” or “submitted” should be cited in the text as personal communications. The person who is cited must give permission for this usage. It is the responsibility of the authors to obtain this permission before the paper is submitted.

Resources Cited. Please cite all resources used within the text as described above in the section entitled "Resource Identification Initiative"

Footnotes. While footnotes are generally discouraged, they may in some cases represent the best way to present material that is relevant to the subject, but would distract from the flow of the manuscript. Footnotes should be cited in the text by superscripted numbers in numerical order of appearance. Footnotes should be included in a separate section, at the end of the paper, identified by superscripted numbers, in numerical order:

1The formula used for calculating the correction factor for double counting was…

2Some of the material employed in this analysis was used previously by Jones et al. (2002) in their description of thalamic nuclei…

Figure Legends and Table of Abbreviations Used in the Figures. The figure legends should be self-explanatory, without referring to the text. They should identify the material that is being illustrated, what is shown, and its significance. Abbreviations used in the figure legends should be used sparingly, and should be spelled out the first time they are used. Abbreviations used in the figures should be included either in the figure legend for that figure (e.g., INC, inferior colliculus; OC, optic chiasm; ZI, zona incerta…) or should be included in a table of abbreviations used in the figures:

INC  inferior colliculus

OC   optic chiasm

ZI      zona incerta

Note that when only a few abbreviations are used in the figures, it is usually better to include them in the relevant figure legends, but when extensive use is made of abbreviations, as in labeling of sections through multiple levels of the brain, a table is usually preferred.

Tables. Tables should be numbered in order of appearance in the text, and presented in numerical order. Each table should be identified by number and should have a title:

Table 1. Percentage of Retrogradely Labeled Cells in Each Site That Contained Enkephalin Immunoreactivity

Abbreviations used in the table should be included in the table legend, under the table. Tables should generally be prepared with as little specialized formatting as possible. If a table requires extensive formatting, it is usually better to prepare it as an image file rather than a text file. If tables are prepared as image files rather than as text files, they should be in separate TIFF (.tif) format files named table number (i.e., Table 1, Table 2...).


The Journal of Comparative Neurology is known for the high quality of its figure reproduction. To maintain this level of quality, it is necessary to insure that the images are acquired and processed at every step with this goal in mind.

Figures should be numbered in the order that they are cited in the text, and presented in that order after the text of the paper. The first time any panel from a figure is cited, that entire figure is considered to have been cited (i.e, the panels should be laid out in an order that is reasonable for that plate, and do not have to be cited in order in the text). Each figure should be submitted in a separate electronic file. All of these files should be formatted at 300 dpi. Please do not submit figures at greater than 300 dpi, as neither our printed page nor .pdfs can display the added resolution, but the files may be too large to load properly into the .pdf used for review. Figures should be formatted for Journal page size (172 mm x 230 mm), 1.5-column width (130 mm x 230 mm), or column width (81 mm x 230 mm) if possible. Figures should be presented in portrait orientation (not in landscape), as most images will be viewed on a computer screen.

Most figures should be prepared as multi-panel plates, rather than single images. Individual panels in a plate should be consecutively lettered, and for all photomicrographs a scale bar should be included in the figure and defined in the figure legend. The tradition of identifying magnification factors (e.g., magnification 250x) should be avoided as digital images may be reproduced at any arbitrary size. It is not necessary to include the size of the scale bar in the figure if it is included in the text.

Figures should be presented in a plain and unadorned style, on a white background. Panels should not be set off by boxes or other edging, and lettering and images should not have gratuitous effects such as highlighting, three dimensional edging, shading, etc. Lettering for panel designators should be 3–6 mm in height, and lettering within a figure 2–4 mm in height. Larger lettering is unnecessary and appears cluttered; smaller lettering may not be legible on a computer screen. Either a Times Roman or Arial font is acceptable, but the same font and type size should be used throughout the figures for a single paper.

Line drawings should use a professional quality graphics program capable of providing smooth, clean lines that are not jagged. Where possible figures should consist of black lines and lettering against a white background. Color may be used to differentiate specific features of a drawing, but should be scientifically necessary (i.e., needed to differentiate the different parts of the image, such as different lines in a graph or different labels mapped against a brain section).

Photomicrographs should be framed and cropped to show the material to its best advantage. The brightness, contrast, sharpness, and evenness of illumination may be adjusted, although this must be indicated in either the Materials and Methods or in the figure legends. The resolution of all photomicrographs must be at least 300 dpi, and they should be provided in TIF format. Color should be used in photomicrographs when scientifically necessary, but plates containing only monochromatic images should be reproduced in black and white.

Authors will be charged $250 per page of color reproduction. Total color page charges to the author will be limited to a maximum of $1000 and the author will not be charged for any extra pages beyond the $1000 fee limit. It is possible to use black and white versions of plates in the print version and color in the online version, without charge, as long as the figure legends apply equally well to either figure (i.e., do not mention the colors). It is not necessary to convert color image files to CMYK; the Journal has instituted an RGB production workflow, and all color files should be submitted as RGB. Note that files submitted as CMYK will be converted to RGB.

For purely red-green images, authors are now asked to convert these to magenta-green. It will make the work accessible to the approximately 6-10% of male readers who have red-green color blindness. Magenta-green pictures can be easily produced using Photoshop: on the Layers palette, click on Channels. Click on the Red channel, then Select All, then Copy. Then click on the Blue channel, and Paste. When clicking on the RGB image, the red will be replaced by magenta and the overlap will be in white. Either use magenta-green images in the main text figures, or prepare a separate set of copies of the red-green figures, and upload them as supplementary figures. If the latter, refer in the figure legends and in the main text to the corresponding magenta-green copy, giving the supplementary figure number, and vice versa.

Graphs should be produced at a resolution of 600–1200 dpi and use a legible font (such as Arial or Helvetica for the labels. Remove all background shading, horizontal and vertical lines or frames around the plots. Simply importing graphics from Excel is not acceptable as the quality of raw Excel graphs is insufficient. The use of 3-dimensional graphs is discouraged as they can be confusing and often fail to convey the proper information to the reader; these should be used only if absolutely justified.

Supplementary materials. The Journal of Comparative Neurology does not accept electronic supplements. If they are deemed important for the points made by the paper, these figures or tables must be integrated within the main text. Exceptions are made for red-green copies of magenta-green figures (see “Figures”), extensive lists of genes or sequences, extensive tabular datasets or raw quantitative materials that authors wish to make available to the scientific community, or very large photographic documentation of results that is necessary for the study and cannot be summarized in the photographic plates included in the article, and movie files. Movies files should be submitted in .AVI, .MPG, .MOV, .WMV, or .RM. Note that electronic supplements must no exceed 500 MB. If you submit supplementary files, please also supply a separate Word (.doc) file containing the figure legends for the supplemental material.

Reprints: Reprints may be purchased at

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

Note to NIH Grantees . Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. For further information, see