Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

Cover image for Vol. 96 Issue 13

Edited By: Mark Shepherd and Andrew Waterhouse

Impact Factor: 2.076

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 6/57 (Agriculture Multidisciplinary); 25/71 (Chemistry Applied); 36/124 (Food Science & Technology)

Online ISSN: 1097-0010

Associated Title(s): Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, Chemistry & Industry, Energy Science & Engineering, Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, Pest Management Science, Polymer International

Author Guidelines


Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture publishes original research, Reviews, Mini-reviews, Perspectives and Spotlights, with particular emphasis on interdisciplinary studies at the agriculture/food interface. The Journal covers fundamental and applied research in many areas including:

  • Health and Nutrition of Food
  • Food Science and Technology
  • Food Safety
  • Biotechnology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry of foods, feeds, ingredients and components
  • Materials and Processing
  • Sensory and Consumer Sciences
  • Agricultural Production
  • Agricultural Utilization
  • Agriculture and the Environment
  • Biomass and Bioenergy

Please read the Aims and Scope section at the front of the Journal, or by clicking on the 'Overview' link above, for a more detailed view.

Concise contributions on experimental or theoretical investigations of the science of food and agriculture are invited for publication.


Front-end content articles are commissioned, but the Journal also warmly welcomes ideas. Please contact the Journals Manager with your proposal; once a proposal is accepted or commissioned, detailed format guidelines will be provided. In general, the Journal prefers lively pieces of interest to a wider audience. All articles are subject to peer review.


A Spotlight is a brief, lightly referenced article about an outstanding area, newsworthy advance or event in the field. Spotlights may report on the contemporary significance of new or established experimental methodologies and discoveries. These articles should be written in a lively and accessible style, be accompanied by a one-sentence abstract, a provocative image and caption and generally should not exceed 6 double-spaced manuscript pages (including tables and figures).


A Perspective is a lightly referenced scholarly opinion piece about current or future directions in a field. A Perspective can serve to assess the science directly concerned with a particular topic or report on relevant issues that may arise from the discipline (for example, policy, effects on society, regulatory issues and controversies). Perspectives that address interdisciplinary research areas or experimental results with significance to a broader audience are of particular interest to the Editors. The Perspective should be accompanied by an abstract and generally range from 6 to 12 double-spaced manuscript pages (including tables and figures).


A Mini-review is a sharply focused summary and assessment of the relevant literature concerning any topic covered within the Aims and Scope of the Journal. These reviews are particularly effective when discussing cutting-edge advancements in the discipline. Mini-reviews should be accompanied by an abstract, are generally no longer than 14 double-spaced manuscript pages (including tables and figures) and are selectively referenced.


A full-length critical Review provides a summary and discussion of the relevant literature about any topic covered within the Aims and Scope of the Journal. Reviews should be accompanied by an abstract and generally be about the same length or slightly longer than a primary research paper.

In Focus

The In Focus section presents a collection of articles (full papers and/or other article types) by different research groups on a theme of interest to the Journal’s readership. These themes will be linked to the Journal’s Aims and Scope, as well as to novel subjects or techniques. In Focus themes and articles are generally solicited by the Journal's Editors or by a guest editor with particular expertise, but ideas are also welcome.

Guidelines for Cover Submissions:If you would like to send suggestions for artwork related to your manuscript to be considered to appear on the cover of the journal, please follow these general guidelines


JSFA operates an online submission system. Details of how to submit online and full author instructions can be found at: . Referees may ask to see hard copies of electronic figures for clarification; these must be available immediately on request.

For enquiries regarding submissions, please contact the Editorial Office at

All papers must be in English. Non-English speaking authors who do not have a good command of English are advised to seek assistance from someone who has.

Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English language. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at Japanese authors can also find a list of local English improvement services at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

Inadequately or incorrectly prepared typescripts may be rejected. Authors will receive an immediate acknowledgement of receipt of their paper followed, normally within four months, by a decision.

When preparing a manuscript, authors should refer to a recent (2004 onwards) issue of the Journal and follow the detailed instructions given below. The corresponding author must obtain the consent of all the co-authors to the submission of the paper. Papers will only be accepted on the understanding that their contents have neither been published, nor are being offered for publication, elsewhere.

In order to expedite the manuscript review process, authors can indicate the subject area they believe to be most appropriate to the topic of their manuscript (from the subject headings listed above, which are described in more detail in the Aims and Scope).

Note to NIH Grantees: Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance.  This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication.  For further information, see


If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

  • Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
  • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
  • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by certain funders [e.g. The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)] you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:



Papers should not normally exceed 6000 words, including relevant data. Any manuscript submitted that, in the opinion of the Editor, is too long will be returned to the corresponding author for redrafting within a suggested maximum wordage.


Type papers in double spacing on A4 or 8½" × 11" paper with 30 mm wide left and right margins. Underlining to indicate italicized type should be restricted to genera and species names, chemical descriptors (e.g. cis , trans , etc.) and journal and book titles. Do not underline any headings. Footnotes should be kept to a minimum and indicated by * or †. Abbreviations of chemical and other names should be defined when first mentioned in the body of the paper, unless commonly used and internationally known and accepted. Each page should be numbered individually.

Units and nomenclature

Units Use SI units in accord with the recommendations of the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). (See Appendix I, below.) Use the form g kg -1 , etc. (not %) to specify content/composition/concentration. Use % only to express proportional change. Note that the form g 100g -1 , etc. is not correct. Avoid the use of g per 100g, for example in food/feed composition, by using g kg -1 . Fertiliser rates should be presented in terms of the element applied. Further information on the ISO recommendations can be obtained from the following publication issued by the British Standards Institution, London: Specification for SI units and recommendations for the use of their multiples and of certain other units , BS 5555 : 1993 ISO 1000 : 1992.

Symbols Write all symbols, formulae and equations with great care. Unusual symbols (including Greek lettering) should be defined in words in the left margin at the first mention.

Scientific names Give the scientific names (with authority) for plants, animals, microorganisms, with generic names in full at the first mention, e.g. Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Thereafter abbreviate them in the text, e.g. M. persicae . Give them in full (without authority) in the headings of sections and tables, in figure captions and in keywords. Where appropriate, cultivars should be specified.

Enzyme nomenclature Identify each enzyme together with its EC number, if available, at the first mention, following the recommendations of the latest edition of Enzyme Nomenclature .

Chemical nomenclature Use the current systematic IUPAC nomenclature throughout.

Statistical analyses

Particular care should be taken to ensure that the appropriate statistical analyses have been carried out. The methods used should be described concisely, yet with enough information to explain how the chosen methods have been applied to the data. The form of all experimental errors and their statistical significance must be given clearly. The statistical analyses should be used in the discussion to justify inferences made against the background of normal biological variation. Further information on recommended statistical procedures can be found in Appendix II, or printed in J Sci Food Agric 87 No 1 (2007); additional copies are available online.


The main body of the paper should be divided into unnumbered sections and each given an appropriate heading. Main headings should be capitalised and centred over the text. Choice of headings will depend on the content, but the following is recommended for research papers:

Title This should be concise and specific and should explain the nature of the work. State in a footnote if the paper was given, in whole or in part, at a scientific meeting.

Running title A running title of up to 80 characters should also be provided.

Authors' names Each must have the customary forename in full and initials for any further forenames (e.g. Arthur B Smith). Give the full address(es) where the work was done. If an author was on secondment or visiting from another address, or has since moved to a new address, this should be given in a footnote. Provide an e-mail address for the corresponding author.

Abstract For original research articles, we now require a compound abstract. This must contain fewer than 200 words in a three-part format with three uppercase headed sections. BACKGROUND: provides a rationale for the study (understandable to a broad audience) and states the main aim(s). RESULTS: describes the main findings, including important numerical values. CONCLUSION: provides the main conclusions, including why the results are significant and advance the field.

For other article types the abstract is not structured in three parts but must be informative yet concise, give essential information such as the purpose of the paper, and be intelligible without reference to the paper itself. It should not normally exceed 150-200 words (abstracts for Perspectives should be briefer, and for Spotlights, should not exceed 1-2 sentences). Authors should remember that the abstract is often the only portion of a paper read (as in abstracting journals) and the use of unusual acronyms or abbreviations should be avoided.

Keywords List (4-6 words) all the main topics incorporated in the paper, including any already given in the title.

Introduction Include a clear description of the aims of the investigation (without summarising the work itself) and a brief statement of previous relevant work with references.

Experimental State clearly, in sufficient detail to permit the work to be repeated, the methods and materials used. Only new techniques and modifications to known methods need to be described in detail but known methods must have adequate references. Include the name, postal town and country of the supplier or manufacturer of any chemical or apparatus not in common use. Give the statistical design (including replication) of each experiment where appropriate (see also Statistical analyses, above).

Results Present these concisely, using tables or illustrations for clarity; do not list the results again in the text. State clearly the form of the experimental error and the statistical significance of the results (see also Statistical analyses, above). Do not overstate the precision of the measurements. Histograms or bar charts, unless prepared carefully, are inferior to tables. Only in exceptional circumstances will both tables and illustrations based on them be accepted. The Experimental and Results sections may be combined when appropriate.

Discussion The Results should be followed by a concise section to discuss and interpret them. Do not just repeat the results. A combined Results and Discussion section sometimes simplifies the presentation.

Conclusions Do not merely repeat content of preceding sections. The Discussion and Conclusions sections may be merged.

Acknowledgements Keep these to the absolute minimum. Avoid thanks for permission to publish.

References It is most important that references should be checked carefully and be in the Vancouver style. Refer to unpublished work only in the text (Smith AB, unpublished), (Brown CD, pers. comm.). References to the literature should be indicated by numerical superscripts 1 numbered in order of appearance 2,3 and following any punctuation. 4–6 References should be listed in numerical order at the end of the paper, giving all the authors, with forename initials after the respective surnames. Ensure that all references in the list are cited in the text and vice versa. Give the date and full title of the paper in the language in which it appeared or an accurate English translation. Abbreviate all journal titles as in Chemical Abstracts or Biological Abstracts and the annual BIOSIS List of Serials , without using full stops after abbreviation. If the journal is not included, give its title in full. Volume numbers should be bold. Note the following style and order for journals:

  1. Syers JK, Mackay AD, Brown MW and Currie LD, Chemical and physical characteristics of phosphate rock materials of varying reactivity. J Sci Food Agric 37: 1057-1064 (1986).
Articles published online but not yet assigned to an issue may be citedusingthe Digital Object Identifier (DOI) :
  1. Goodman BA and Newton AC, Effects of drought stress and its sudden relief on free radical processes in barley. J Sci Food Agric DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.1938 (2004)
Quote books as follows:
  1. Doyle J, Altered Harvest . Agriculture , Genetics and the Fate of the World's Food Supply . Viking Penguin Inc., New York, pp. 136-158 (1985).
  2. Thomas T, Barnes A and Hole CC, Modification of plant part relationships in vegetable crops, in Chemical Manipulation of Growth and Development , ed. by McLaren JS. Butterworths, London, pp. 297-311 (1982).

Online citations to online-only journals and books should include the author, title, website and date of access:

  1. Wright NA, The Standing of UK Histopathology Research 19972002. [7 October 2004].

All other online citations should be cited only in the text, with the author's name and the website address: (Brown CD (

When quoting patents, give the name of the applicant, the year of publication, the title, the country and patent or application number thus:

  1. Hagner MB and Wendt KL, Method of sorting seeds. UK Patent 1470133 (1977).

Tables Supply each table on a separate sheet. The table number (given as an arabic numeral) should be given at the top, followed by a concise title. Give essential details as footnotes. Keep the number of columns to a minimum. Column headings should be brief, with the units of measurement clearly stated in parentheses. Where one unit applies to all the data in the body of the table include it in the title. The data should be easy to follow without horizontal lines between entries. A zero is often incorrect; use 'not detected' (ND) where appropriate, amplifying this, and trace (tr), where possible in a footnote, e.g. '≤10 µg kg -1 '. For 'not significant' (NS) state the limiting level. Cite all tables in the text, in numerical order at first mention.

Illustrations Number all illustrations consecutively, in order of appearance in the text, using arabic numerals. Keep lettering on illustrations to a minimum and include essential details in the legend. Photomicrographs must have a scale bar. On graphs, include labels and units on axes. Present logarithmic scales with arithmetic numbering 0.1, 1, 10, 100 rather than -1, 0, 1, 2. Avoid unnecessarily long axes that lead to large blank spaces on graphs.

Save each figure as a separate file and include the source file (i.e. a file in the program in which the image was originally created). The figures should be of high resolution (300 dpi minimum for photos, 800 dpi minimum for graphs, drawings, etc., at the size the figure will be printed). Numbers and symbols incorporated in the figure must be large enough to be legible after reduction in figure size. We cannot publish scans or photocopied figures or accept PowerPoint, Excel, Encapsulated PostScript (EPS), LaTeX, Roshal Archive (RAR) or Portable Document Format (PDF) files. Suitable file types include Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) and Microsoft Word (doc) files. You must have appropriate permission to reproduce previously published figures.

Each figure must be accompanied by a legend. A legend should consist of a concise title, followed by a brief technical description which should contain enough information to make the figure understandable without reference to the text. It should not contain methods. Symbols indicated in the figure must be identified in the legend.

Electrophoresis patterns These are complex. Photographs, which often lack clarity, should not be included except to make a particular point. Where the reporting of gel electrophoresis, SDS gels, immuno-electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, etc. is essential, adhere to the following principles:

  • a single zone requires only description in the text
  • preferably claim homogeneity using a scan diagram
  • preferably use a single gel to compare several tracks
  • when scan diagrams are used, accurate alignment is essential

Where photographs or scan diagrams must be used:

  • number all zones and identify those common to more than one track
  • give a molecular weight scale for SDS gels
  • give experimental details and track identification in the legend

Please note: The journal does accept colour figures and photographs, but there is a charge to authors to cover the additional production costs involved in printing colour. Under exceptional circumstances, authors may request that these charges be waived. This must be provided in writing, at the time of submission, and authors must justify to the Editor that inclusion of the figure(s) in colour is essential for interpretation of the results presented.

Chemical structures Prepare these on a separate sheet as described for illustrations and number the individual formulae with roman numerals ( I , II ). All bonds, charges and free radicals should be accurately positioned. Indicate aromatic and unsaturated heterocyclic systems using double bonds. Preferably use general structures, distinguishing related compounds by substituents R 1 , R 2 etc.

Supporting information JSFA accepts submission of supporting information. This may include extensive tables, graphs, spectra, calculations, and other material beyond that which is essential to the printed paper. This will be included in the online edition of the Journal but will not be part of the printed article. Supporting information should be denoted as such when submitting via Manuscript Central. It should be uploaded as a separate file at the time the manuscript is submitted for peer review.


If the manuscript contains extracts, including illustrations from other copyright works (including material from online or intranet sources), it is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission from the owners of the publishing rights to reproduce such extracts using the Wiley Permission Request Form. Permission grants should be submitted with the manuscript.


Author submitting a manuscript containing in vivo animal work should submit details of all relevant Ethics Committee approval and authorization (e.g. institute and/or government) and all reference numbers. Details will be printed as a footnote to the paper.


Proofs will be e-mailed as a PDF file to the corresponding author, whose e-mail address must be supplied on the manuscript. Proofs must be corrected and returned to the publishers within 48 hours of receipt; failure to do this will result in a delay in publication. Authors' corrections must be restricted to printers' and/or factual errors.


There are no page charges. Free access to the final PDF of the article will be available via Author Services only. Reprints can be purchased at current printing prices.


Upon acceptance of a paper by the Journal, the author(s) will be asked to sign a transfer of copyright of the paper to SCI. The transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. Where an article is prepared jointly, the corresponding author must obtain either the signature(s) of the co-author(s) to this Agreement or their written behalf.


The Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture uses Wiley-Blackwell’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete and final full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. They are fully copyedited and typeset and therefore no changes can be made after an article is published in Early View. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers. They can be referenced and tracked before being allocated to an issue by using the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). This will be the same DOI as assigned at Accepted Article stage. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article. For more information on DOIs, please see


The Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture now provides authors with Wiley-Blackwell’s Accepted Articles service, whereby peer reviewed, accepted articles, are published online within days of acceptance, without having been copyedited or typeset. The articles are available as a PDF and can be cited using their Digital Object Identifier (DOI) numbers. For more information on DOIs, please see Please note, as Accepted Articles are not considered to be final, changes may be made after the Accepted Article online publication date. Once copyedited and typeset, the article will be removed from the Accepted Articles area and will appear instead in Early View.

The implementation of the Accepted Articles service has been designed to ensure the earliest possible circulation of research papers immediately after acceptance, considerably reducing time to publication.


The Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture works together with Wiley's Open Access Journal, Food Science & Nutrition, to enable rapid publication of good quality research that is unable to be accepted for publication by our journal. Authors will be offered the option of having the paper, along with any related peer reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Editor of Food Science & Nutrition. Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place. The Editor of Food Science & Nutrition will accept submissions that report well-conducted research which reaches the standard acceptable for publication. Accepted papers can be published rapidly: typically within 20 days of acceptance. Food Science & Nutrition is a Wiley Open Access journal and article publication fees apply. For more information, please go to


The aim of publishing a Short Communication article is to provide the readers with useful and novel results or information that do not warrant publication as a full research paper. These should be submitted to the online submission system at, where authors should specify the article to be a Short Communication in the ‘Manuscript Type’ section. Authors should include a note to the Editor detailing why the paper is of interest to the readership, and why the short format is preferred.

The maximum total manuscript length is 8 pages of A4, double spaced, font size not less than 11 pt. This must include all tables, diagrams and references.

The manuscript should contain a compound abstract; a brief introduction; details of experimental procedures in sufficient detail to allow replication of the experiment; results, either tabular or graphical (any diagrams must not be less than the width of a single column); conclusions; references.

Short Communication articles will be subjected to peer review.


Recommended SI units and symbols

SI base unitsNameSymbol

Electric currentampereA
Thermodynamic temperaturekelvinK
Amount of substancemolemol
Luminous intensitycandelacd


To form decimal multiples of SI units the following prefixes may be used, but for mass the prefix is added to the gram (g) and not the kilogram (kg).


10 3kilok
10 -1decid
10 -2centic
10 -3millim


10 -6microµ
10 -9nanon
10 -12picop
10 -15femtof

Derived units

Physical quantityNameSymbol

EnergyjouleJkg m 2 s -2= Nm
ForcenewtonNkg m s -2= J m -1
PressurepascalPakg m -1