Cover image for Vol. 122 Issue 15

Edited By: Fadlo R. Khuri, MD

Impact Factor: 5.649

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 26/213 (Oncology)

Online ISSN: 1097-0142

Associated Title(s): Cancer Cytopathology, CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians

Author Guidelines

For additional tools visit Author Resources - an enhanced suite of online tools for Wiley Online Library journal authors, featuring Article Tracking, E-mail Publication Alerts, and Customized Research Tools. To download a PDF copy of these Author Guidelines, please click here.

Conflicts of Interest Disclosure Statement
Permission Request Form

All CORRESPONDENCE for the journal should be sent to the following address. Please include the manuscript ID with all correspondence (example: CNCR-16-0000):

Cancer Editorial Office
American Cancer Society
250 Williams Street NW
Atlanta, Georgia 30303 USA
Phone: (404) 327-6411
Fax: (404) 417-8016

Aims and Scope
American Cancer Society Mission
Submission Guidelines
Review Process


Cancer is a peer-reviewed publication of the American Cancer Society integrating scientific information from worldwide sources for all oncologic specialties. The objective of Cancer is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the exchange of clinically applicable information among oncologic disciplines concerned with the etiology and course of human cancer. Cancer accomplishes this objective by publishing original articles, as well as other scientific and educational documents, that support the mission of the American Cancer Society by facilitating the transfer of knowledge from the laboratory to the bedside; contributing to cancer prevention, early detection, diagnosis, cure, and rehabilitation; and diminishing suffering from cancer.


The American Cancer Society is the nationwide community based voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer as a major health problem by preventing cancer, saving lives and diminishing suffering from cancer through research, education, advocacy, and service.


Manuscripts must be submitted to Cancer via ScholarOne Manuscripts. Please contact the Cancer Editorial Office at (404) 327-6411 or if you have any questions about submitting your manuscript online.
• All manuscripts must be submitted electronically using Cancer’s ScholarOne Manuscripts Web site available at Manuscripts may not be submitted by e-mail.
• Submit text files only as .DOC, .DOCX, or .RTF file formats. Other file formats are not permitted and should be converted to .DOC or .DOCX.
• Authors are required to email or upload any permissions that may have been obtained for figures or tables or any permissions required for patient consent. Please include the permanent manuscript ID on all correspondence (example CNCR-15-0000).

Cancer does not charge any submission, page, or color fees. Authors of accepted articles do have the option of paying a fee of $3,500 in order for their published article to be made freely accessible to all. For more information about Wiley's OnlineOpen program, please go to

Presubmission Inquiries
Due to the high volume of submissions we receive, Cancer does not consider presubmission inquiries. Instead, please submit full manuscripts online at

Tobacco Policy
Cancer will not consider any work that is funded directly or indirectly from tobacco companies or their subsidiaries. Any such work will be editorially rejected. Please note that this does not include work from organizations that sponsor research from funds won by U.S. states and federal governments as part of tobacco settlements that are intended to promote research and care toward alleviating the suffering of individuals affected by tobacco products.

Simultaneous Submission and Online Posting
Cancer will not consider papers that are simultaneously submitted elsewhere or have been published (to include online). If a manuscript is posted to an author’s Web site (or their institution’s site), it must be taken down prior to submission. Manuscripts cannot be posted online until after the paper has been published in Cancer and only if permission has been granted by the publisher and the article properly cited. Clinical trial results may not be published online prior to journal publication.

Required Materials
The following items are required to be included with the online submission:
• Cover letter that describes the significance and novelty of the work and includes the statements ‘‘All authors have read and approved the manuscript’’ and “This manuscript is not under consideration elsewhere” as well as any additional information that may impact the review process
• Corresponding author’s complete contact information to include address, phone number, and e-mail address
• Manuscript type (eg, Editorial, Review Article, Original Article, etc.)
• Running head of 40 characters or less
• Abstract of no more than 250 words for Original and Review Articles
• The anatomic site or discipline best suited for the original article
• Condensed abstract of 2 concise sentences
• 5 keywords
• Full names and affiliations of all authors, complete with first and middle names or initials, and e-mail addresses for each
• Reviewer suggestions that include names and e-mail addresses
• Funding and conflict of interest information
• Listing of individual author contributions to the work
• Indication of whether or not the paper was invited

Manuscript Types
Papers that exceed the length limitations as described in this guide will not be considered for review.
• Original Articles: Scientific reports of the results of original clinical research. The text is limited to 5000 words including the title page, abstract, text, references, and tables. Abstracts are limited to 250 words.
• Review Articles: A timely, in-depth treatment of an issue. Review articles are generally solicited by the editors, but unsolicited materials will be considered. Review articles must be no longer than 6000 words including title page, abstract, text, tables, and references.
• Editorials: Opinions of recognized leaders in oncologic specialties. Editorials are generally solicited by the Editor-in-Chief and are related to a manuscript in the same issue. Length should not exceed 2400 words with no more than 20 references.
• Commentaries: Presents a point of view of general interest not related to an article in the same issue of Cancer.
• Communications: Brief notes on selected topics from organizations such as the American Cancer Society, the Commission on Cancer of the American College of Surgeons, and the American Joint Committee on Cancer.
• In Memoriam: Memorialization of recently deceased individuals who have made notable contributions to the field of oncology.
• Correspondence: Letters to the Editor related to papers previously published in Cancer. Letters must be submitted within three months of the online publication date of the article discussed in order to be considered. The authors of the original publication will be given the opportunity to respond in the same issue of Cancer. Letters and responses must not exceed 750 words in length and should not have tables or figures. Financial associations or other potential conflicts of interest must be disclosed.
• Case reports of single cases will not be considered.

For information on submitting a supplement to Cancer, please see our policy and instructions.

Manuscript Style
Prepare the manuscript using American spelling and grammar. Use the following sources as guidelines for manuscript preparation and style:
• Matters of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, hyphenation, reference format, and general style: AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed.1
• Citing cancer stages: American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual, 7th ed.2 or UICC TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors3
• Histologic classification of tumors: World Health Organization International Histological Classification of Tumours4
• Drug naming: USP Dictionary of USAN and International Drug Names, 20095
• Chemical terms: Naming and Indexing of Chemical Substances for Chemical Abstracts6
• Terms relating to diseases, operations, and procedures: ICD-O-3: International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd ed.,7 Physicians’ Current Procedural Terminology: CPT, 2009,8 and SNOMED International9
• Presenting statistical material: Cancer Treatment Reports10
• Abbreviating journal titles in references: List of Serials Indexed for Online Users11
• Units of measure: Systéme International (SI) or metric system.

Manuscript Format
The following components are required for a complete manuscript: cover letter, title page (including all disclosure and support statements), abstract, text, references, figure legends, publication quality figures, and tables. Include page numbers on the document, beginning with the title page as number 1. Please use standard 10- or 12-point font size. Manuscript should be double spaced.

Title Page
The following items are required on the title page:
• Manuscript title
• Running title: a short version of the title (up to 40 characters including spaces)
• Each author's name, academic degrees, and affiliation (all affiliations must be translated into standard English). Group members who do not meet the formal authorship criteria listed in the "Authorship, responsibility, conflict of interest disclosure, and copyright transfer" section below but who contributed materially may be recognized in the Acknowledgments section.
• Complete mailing address, telephone, facsimile, and e-mail for correspondence and reprints
• Total number of each: 1) text pages, including title page, references, and figure legends; 2) tables; and 3) figures
• Details of all funding sources for the work in question. All financial and material support for the research and the work, including the source and number of grants for each author, should be listed. Please be sure to indicate whether any grants are from the NIH. If the work had no specific funding, this should be explicitly stated.
• All conflict of interest disclosures. If there are no conflict of interest disclosures from any authors, please state that as well.
• A dedicated Author Contributions section listing individual author contributions to the work. The contributions of all authors must be described. Cancer uses the CRediT taxonomy of contributor roles.
• Precis for use in the Table of Contents: two concise sentences that state the significant conclusion(s) or message of the manuscript (not required for Correspondence)
• Abstract: Original and Review Articles must contain an abstract of approximately 250 words. Structured abstracts are required for Original Articles and must have four specified subtitles: Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusion(s). Abstracts are not required for Editorials, Commentaries, Communications, or Correspondence. Abstracts published in Cancer are submitted to the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB), supported by the National Cancer Institute. This facilitates broad circulation of cancer-related abstracts. If the ICRDB edits an abstract significantly, it is indicated by a notation ‘‘modified.’’ Authors are hereby made aware of this procedure in advance of submitting a manuscript to Cancer.
• Keywords: 5 to 10 key words or terms to be used as index terms. Use terms from the medical subject headings list of

Protection of Human and Animal Subjects
Cancer endorses the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki and expects that all investigations involving humans will have been performed in accordance with these principles. All manuscripts reporting human experimentation must include:
• A statement that the human investigations were performed after approval by an institutional review board or ethics committee and in accordance with an assurance filed with and approved by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, where appropriate. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed.
• A statement that the investigators obtained informed consent from each participant or each participant’s guardian.
When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.

Photographs With Identifiable Patients
In photographs, sonograms, CT scans, etc., the physical identification of a patient should be masked whenever possible. If a patient is identifiable, written permission to use the photograph must be obtained from the patient or guardian and sent to the Cancer Editorial Office upon manuscript submission. Clearly state in the manuscript that informed consent has been obtained.

Cell Line Authentication
To ensure the highest standards of quality and accuracy, Cancer strongly encourages the authentication of cell lines used in the research submitted to the journal. Manuscripts based on research using cell lines must include a statement addressing the following points in the Methods section of the manuscript:

1. Where the cells were obtained from
2. Whether the cell lines have been tested and authenticated
3. The method by which the cells were tested

If cells were obtained directly from a cell bank that performs cell line characterizations and passaged in the user’s laboratory for fewer than 6 months after receipt or resuscitation, re-authorization is not required. In these cases, please include the method of characterization used by the cell bank. If the cell lines were obtained from an alternate source, authors must provide authentication of the origin and identity of the cells. This is best achieved by DNA (STR) profiling. The DNA profile should be cross-checked with the DNA profile of the donor tissue (in case of a new cell line) or with the DNA profile of other continuous cell lines.

Clinical Trial Registry
Cancer requires that all prospective, randomized, controlled trials with patient enrollment starting on or after August 1, 2007, be registered in a public database that meets the requirements of the World Health Organization. Currently, such registries include the following:,,,, and For more information, please refer to the guidelines at Upon submission, please provide the registration identification number and the URL for the trial’s registry in your cover letter.

Randomized Controlled Trials
Reports of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) must state explicitly how the comparison groups were generated, so that readers will be able to assess the method of randomization. In the title, precis, and abstract, specify that the manuscript is a report of an RCT. Prior to submitting an RCT manuscript, authors should refer to the CONSORT checklist. A copy of the 25-item checklist should be uploaded as a supplemental file to the submitted paper.

Observational Studies
Observational studies (cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional designs) must be reported according to the STROBE statement. A completed STROBE checklist should be uploaded as a supplemental file to the submitted paper.

Reports of Diagnostic Tests
Authors of reports of diagnostic tests should upload the STARD flow diagram and checklist as a supplemental file to the submitted paper.

Biomarker Papers
For papers that report new biomarkers or algorithms, authors should identify the unmet clinical need that the diagnostic test could fill. Data obtained with a discovery (“learning”) set of specimens should be confirmed with a separate validation set. Statistical analysis should define limits on sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Sufficient detail should be provided regarding the clinical characteristics of the donors of the assayed specimens to be certain that they are representative of the population in which an unmet need is to be targeted. Similarly, methods for assay and analysis should be presented in sufficient detail to permit replication by other investigators.

Statistical Analysis
The following guidelines should be followed:
• Report the sample size n for each study and each analysis
• Describe the power analysis to justify the sample size if appropriate
• Identify all statistical methods and verify the assumptions for all statistical tests
• Provide alpha (the probability of a Type I error) for all statistical tests
• Specify whether tests are one- or two-sided
• Report the descriptive statistics (n, mean, median, and standard deviation) for all continuous variables
• Report n and the sample proportion for binary variables
• Adequately explain complex statistical procedures such a multivariate logistic regression and the Cox proportional hazard regression model and verify the assumptions of each such procedure
• Report the actual P-values and explain what is meant by statistical significance
• Discuss and describe adjustments for multiple testing

Classification and Staging
AJCC/UICC TNM Classification and Stage groupings are to be used. If another staging system is stated, the AJCC/UICC TNM equivalent must also be given.2,3 The stage grouping is a combination of the individual T, N, M classifications (eg, Breast Carcinoma Stage IIA is T2 N0 M0. Please note IIA is the stage. T2 N0M0 is a combination of T, N, M classifications that satisfy the criteria for Stage IIA). Reference to any T, N, M component is a classification and not a stage (eg, the T2 classification); it is not correct to state the classification as a stage (eg, the T2 stage). When a stage or classification is used in the manuscript, a reference citing the staging system must be provided. The first time a stage is used it must be accompanied by the T, N, M and the verbal translation of the numerical identifier (eg, Breast Carcinoma Stage IIA [T2 N0 M0]): tumor more than 2 cm but not more than 5 cm in greatest dimension [T2], no regional lymph node metastasis [N0], no distant metastasis [M0]).

Drugs and Devices
Use generic drug name (or generic name followed by trade name in parentheses). Include manufacturer and their location (city and country) for drugs and devices.

Use only standard abbreviations and spell out all abbreviations at first use in the text followed by the abbreviation in parentheses.1

Submit references per the following instructions:
• List references double-spaced in a separate reference section immediately following the text.
• Verify all references prior to submission.
• Use the AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed.1 for reference format style and List of Serials Indexed for Online Users11 for standard journal abbreviations (examples to follow).
• Number references sequentially in the order cited in the text; do not alphabetize. Remove automatic numbering and linked citations; number references manually.
• Do not cite personal communications, unpublished observations, and submitted manuscripts. Reference to a paper accepted but not yet published can be listed as ‘‘in press.’’ ‘‘In press’’ references must be updated by the authors as soon as publication data are available.
• Provide names of all authors in a reference when there are six or fewer; if there are seven or more authors, list only the first three, followed by ‘‘et al.’’
• Reference types. Following are requirements and examples for common reference types:
      • Journal references include the specified information listed in the following order—authors, article title and subtitle, journal abbreviation, year, volume number in Arabic numerals, and inclusive pages. Example 1: Cohn KH, Ornstein DL, Wang F, et al. The significance of allelic deletions and aneuploidy in colorectal carcinoma: results of a 5-year follow-up study. Cancer. 1997;79:233–244.
      • Book references include the following: authors, title, edition (if other than the first), volume (if more than one), city, publisher, and year. When referencing a book chapter, the order changes as follows: authors of the chapter, title of the chapter, ‘‘In:’’, editors/authors of the book, title of the book, edition (if there are more than one), volume (if there are more than one), city, publisher, year, and inclusive pages of the chapter. Example 2: Givan AL. Flow Cytometry: First Principles.2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001. Example 3: Luketich JD, Ginsberg RJ. Diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. In: Johnson BE, Johnson DH, editors. Lung Cancer. New York: Wiley-Liss, Inc., 1995:161–173.
      • Electronic sources should include the type of medium (such as ‘‘computer program’’ or ‘‘CD-ROM’’), the version used, and the supplier. References to online sources should include the type of medium (such as ‘‘serial online’’ or ‘‘monograph online’’), the date of that specific reference (if applicable), the uniform resource locator (URL), and the date that the source was accessed. For web pages, please include the name of the page referenced. A source accessed online should always be referenced accordingly, even if it is also published in printed form. Example 4: Nakamura S, Yao T, Aoyagi K, Ikda M, Fujishima M, Tsuneyoshi M. Helicobacter pylori and primary gastric lymphoma: a histopathologic and immunochemical analysis of 237 patients. Cancer [serial online] 1997;79:3–11. Available from URL: [accessed Dec 1, 1998]. Example 5: American Cancer Society. Cancer reference information. Available from URL: CRI/CRI_0.asp [accessed January 26, 2006]. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation.

• Submit single-spaced on separate pages in the word processing program used. Tables imported into the word-processing program from spreadsheet programs (eg, Microsoft Excel) should be left in table format and not converted to text. Gridlines should be retained.
• Do not embed tables as graphic files. They cannot be edited by the publisher.
• Limit tables to those that adequately and concisely present findings without redundancy.
• Cite all tables in the text. Number tables consecutively, using Arabic numerals, in the order cited in the text. The table number is followed by a brief descriptive title.
• Include table number, ‘‘continued,’’ and table subheadings on each page if a table exceeds one manuscript page.
• Define all abbreviations used in the table in footnotes to the table.
• Obtain written permission to reproduce previously published tabular material. Credits for the reproduced work are included as a footnote to the table and must include author(s), title, either publisher and city (and country, if other than US) or periodical name, volume, page, and year. Signed permission forms must be sent to the Cancer Editorial Office upon submissions.

Figures and Legends
• Submit only publication quality figures in TIFF or EPS file format. JPEG and GIF files are not permitted.
• The following resolutions are required to ensure print quality: 1200 dpi for line art; 300 dpi for halftones/color (RGB); 600 dpi for combination halftones/color.
• Figures should be sized to one-column width (19 picas, 3.25 inches), or two-column width (40 picas, 6.75 inches), as appropriate.
• Call out all figures in the text. Number all figures sequentially with Arabic numerals in the order cited in the text.
• Provide double-spaced legends on a separate page to include the figure number and a brief description of the figure.
• For typeface within figures, use 6-pt to 12-pt Arial or Helvetica font.
• Gray shading in figures may not reproduce well for publication and should be avoided. Do not use overall background shading in figures. Do not use gray-shaded bars in graphs—use bars with solid, open, or hatched fill. Avoid fine lines and very small type and symbols in figures. Lines should be reasonably dark and type and symbols should be easily read if the figure is reduced for publication.
• Figures with multiple parts should be labeled and referred to as (a), (b), (c), etc.
• Obtain written permission to reproduce previously published figures. Credits for the reproduced work are included in the figure legend and must include author(s), title, either publisher and city (and country, if other than US) or periodical name, volume, page, and year. Signed permission forms must be sent to the Cancer Editorial Office upon submission.
• Do not embed figures in word processing programs (eg, Microsoft Word).
• Mask any patient identification in photographs; otherwise, a signed permission statement is required (please see Permissions section).
• Note: Color figures are published in print and online free of charge.

Use of previously published or copyrighted material Information reproduced from another source must be properly cited. The corresponding author is responsible for obtaining written permission from the appropriate authors and/or copyright holders to use previously published or copyrighted material. Signed permission statements from the copyright holder for both print and online reproduction must be sent to the Cancer Editorial Office upon manuscript submission. Permission statements also must be obtained from at least one author when citing in press articles.

You can obtain permission to reproduce Cancer content directly from our website. Just search for the material you wish to reuse on Wiley Online Library. Click on the 'Request Permission' link.
• Follow the online instructions and select your requirements from the drop down options to gain a 'quick quote'
• Create a RightsLink® account to complete and pay for your transaction (if you do not already have one)
• Read and accept our Terms & Conditions and Download your license

Supporting Information
Supporting information (SI) will be published in the online version of Cancer only. SI is mentioned in the article text and published online in its original format along with the article. SI will undergo peer review with the rest of the manuscript but will not be copyedited or changed from its original format. It must be relevant but not integral to the paper. It can comprise additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Like the manuscript accompanying it, it should be original and not previously published. If previously published, it must be submitted with the necessary permissions. SI is hosted on Wiley Online Library (WOL) in the ‘Supporting Information’ section of the article and access to ‘Supporting Information’ is free on WOL. For more information on recommended file types, please visit

Optimizing Your Article for Search Engines
Driving usage and readership is critically important to raising the visibility of your published research. One of the key factors in sustaining long-term usage is through search engine optimization (SEO). For detailed information on SEO, including helpful examples, go to


Group Authorship
Group authorship may be appropriate when a group of researchers has collaborated on a project, such as a multicenter trial, a consensus document, or an expert panel. Group authorship may be used in either of two ways:
1. Authorship may be attributed to an entire group (eg, Pediatric Oncology Group) when all members of the group meet the criteria for authorship previously outlined. In this case, the name of the group is located on the title page in the place of authors; each member of the group is listed in a footnote and his/her authorship acknowledged.
2. When specified authors assume responsibility for an entire group (eg, Jane E. Doe, John L. Smith, Mark F. Jones for the Pediatric Oncology Group), only the specified authors must meet the criteria for authorship previously outlined. All members of the group may be listed in a footnote but are not acknowledged as authors. In this case, the corresponding author must state in the cover letter that she/he has written permission from each group member to list her/his name as a member of the group.

Authorship Responsibility
Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credit should be based on the following criteria 1) Substantial contributions to conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 3) Final approval of the version to be published; and 4) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All four conditions must be met. Carefully review author status prior to submitting a manuscript. Changes to the author list (deletions and additions) may not be permitted once a manuscript is in review.

Manuscripts drafted or written, in whole or part, by individuals not listed as authors will not be considered for publication unless those contributions are clearly and accurately included in the acknowledgement section of the paper and all sources for funding those activities are disclosed in the manuscript and on the author financial disclosure forms.

License Agreements
If your paper is accepted, the corresponding author will receive an email prompting them to log into Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS), they will be able to complete the appropriate license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement:

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected, the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen:

If the OnlineOpen option is selected, the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA (CC-BY)
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA (CC-BY-NC)
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License OAA (CC-BY-NC-ND)

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements, please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by certain funders [e.g. The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)] , you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in compliance with The Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy, please visit:

Conflicts of Interest
At the time of manuscript submission, the Journal requires corresponding authors to summarize all authors' conflict of interest disclosures. This conflict of interest information is provided to editors and peer reviewers. At the time of manuscript acceptance, we ask each author, including the corresponding author, to complete his or her own International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Conflict of Interest Disclosure Statement. Information about this form is available at Please label each conflict of interest form in the following format: ManuscriptNumber_LastName. For example: CNCR-16-0000_Smith. In the case of authors with the same last name, please use the first initial and then last name.

NIH Public Access Mandate
For those interested in the Wiley-Blackwell policy on the NIH Public Access Mandate, please visit our policy statement.

Authors' Professional and Ethical Responsibilities
Should possible scientific misconduct or dishonesty in research submitted for review be suspected or alleged, Cancer reserves the right to forward any submitted manuscript to the sponsoring or funding institution or to other appropriate authorities for investigation. Cancer recognizes the responsibility to ensure that the question is appropriately pursued, but does not undertake the actual investigation or make determinations of misconduct. The author will be notified if Cancer forwards any manuscript or materials to the sponsoring or funding institution.

Author Resources
For additional tools visit Author Resources - an enhanced suite of online tools for Wiley Online Library journal authors, featuring Article Tracking, E-mail Publication Alerts, and Customized Research Tools.

ORCID researcher iD: ORCID is a service for authors/researchers in the scholarly community that uniquely identifies your contributions to the scholarly literature. We encourage you to sign up for your free ORCID iD and add it to your ScholarOne user account.

Conflicts of Interest Disclosure Statement
Permission Request Form

Site for submissions
ScholarOne Manuscripts

Help with submissions
• E-mail:


Editorial and Peer Review
All submitted manuscripts are reviewed initially by the Editor-in-Chief for quality, novelty, scientific importance, and relevance to the journal's general readership. Manuscripts with insufficient priority for publication or those that are outside the scope of the journal are rejected promptly. Manuscripts judged worthy of further consideration are sent to Section Editors. Manuscripts that pass the initial screening by the Editor-in-Chief and assigned Section Editor are reviewed by experts in the field. The Section Editors select the external peer reviewers and make the final decisions on manuscripts. Cancer employs a single-blind review process in which peer reviewer identities are kept confidential, but author identities are made known to reviewers. The existence of a manuscript under review is not revealed to anyone other than the peer reviewers and editorial staff. Peer reviewers are required to maintain confidentiality about the manuscripts they review and must not divulge any information about a specific manuscript or its content to any third party without prior permission from the journal editors. All authors will be sent notification of the receipt of manuscripts and editorial decisions by e-mail. During the review process, designated contact authors can also check the status of the submitted manuscript via ScholarOne Manuscripts at

CrossCheck is a multi-publisher initiative to screen published and submitted content for originality. Cancer uses iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. To find out more about CrossCheck visit Authors are also encouraged to review the Office of Research Integrity's definition of self-plagiarism, which can be found at


Fast-Track Review
If circumstances so warrant, a fast-track review of a paper may be requested in the cover letter. At the Editor-in-Chief’s discretion, a fast-track review will be undertaken to expedite manuscripts that deserve rapid review and publication. Expedited peer review and publication is rare and is reserved for timely presentation of significant data. If fast-track review is requested in the cover letter, the corresponding author will be informed if expedited review has been granted or not.

Appeal Requests
Authors who wish to request reconsideration of a rejected manuscript should contact the Editorial Office at Requests must include the manuscript ID (CNCR-15-0000) and a detailed description of why the authors believe the paper should be reconsidered. In addition, the request should indicate if the manuscript was originally solicited by the Editor-in-Chief or one of the Section Editors. Appeal requests will be evaluated by the Editor-in-Chief or a Section Editor to determine if an appeal will be permitted. If the appeal is allowed, instructions will be provided on how to resubmit your paper. Authors should not resubmit their rejected paper without prior approval from the Editors and the Editorial Office. Please note that the Editorial Office will only consider requests sent directly to Requests that are sent elsewhere will not be considered.

Submissions from Editors
Cancer strives to ensure that any submission from the Editor-in-Chief or a member of the journal’s Editorial Board receives an objective and unbiased evaluation. This is achieved by assigning any submitted manuscript from the Editor-in-Chief or an Editorial Board member to an impartial Section Editor who can maintain the integrity of the review process. When appropriate, Cancer also utilizes the services of Guest Editors who are members of the Editorial Advisory Board and familiar with the peer review processes and policies of the journal. Submitting authors are automatically blinded to all aspects of the review process by ScholarOne Manuscripts.


Proofs to Authors
Page proofs for accepted manuscripts are sent via e-mail to the corresponding author from the Publisher, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The corresponding author must return all proof corrections within 48 hours and limit changes to corrections of typographical errors and errors in the presentation of data. Correspondence regarding proofs should be directed to Cancer Production Editor, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River St., Hoboken, NJ, 07030-5774, USA. Telephone: (201) 748-8758; Facsimile: (201) 748-6182/8852; E-mail:

Authors will receive instructions on how to purchase reprints inside their proof packets. Please note that regardless of the form in which they are received, reprints should not be resold, nor further disseminated in electronic form, nor deployed in part or in whole in any marking, promotional, or educational contexts without authorization from Wiley. Permission requests should be directed to

Embargo Policy
Once submitted, articles cannot be discussed with the media until one week before the publication date. Accepted articles are embargoed from reporting by all media until 12:01 A.M. (EST) on the date of online publication.

Authors who discuss their work with the media in the week prior to publication must ensure that the media representatives know the embargo policy and the embargo date.

Authors can participate in scientific conferences prior to publication of their article in Cancer if their paper is in press (accepted and sent to production).

Author guidelines for discussing articles at scientific conferences:
• Please keep comments minimal (no article title and details); discussing the findings and results in general terms is allowed. A figure or table may be shown during the presentation.
• Please do not distribute copies of the manuscript, tables, or figures.
• At the conference, authors should decline interviews from the media until the embargo has lifted.

If an embargo break is the result of any action by an author, the author risks withdrawal of publication of the manuscript.

Authors who wish to arrange their own publicity can refer to the guidelines found here.

After publication of the final published version, author retains the right to self-archive on the author's personal website or in the author's institution's/employer's institutional repository or archive. This right extends to both intranets and the Internet. Author may not self-archive on 3rd-party repositories. Author may not update the submitted version or replace it with the published version. The version posted must contain a legend as follows: This is the pre-peer-reviewed version of the following article: FULL CITE, which has been published in final form at [Link to final article].


1. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 10th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
2. Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, Fritz AG, Greene FL, Trotti A, eds. American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer, 2009.
3. Sobin L, Gospodarowicz M, Wittekind C, eds. TNM Classification of malignant tumors. 7th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009.
4. World Health Organization. International histological classification of tumours. 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1969–1981; Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1988–Present.
5. USP Dictionary of USAN and International Drug Names, 2009. Rockville, MD: U.S. Pharmacopeia, 2009.
6. Chemical Abstracts Services. Naming and indexing of chemical substances for chemical abstracts, 2007. Columbus, OH: Chemical Abstracts Services, 2008.
7. ICD-O-3: International classification of diseases for oncology. 3rd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000.
8. Physicians’ current procedural terminology, 4th ed.: CPT, 2009. Chicago: American Medical Association, 2008.
9. Cote RA, Rothwell DJ, Beckett RS, Palotay JL, eds. SNOMED international: the systematized nomenclature of human and veterinary medicine. 4 vols. Northfield, IL: College of American Pathologists, 1993.
10. National Cancer Institute. Cancer treatment reports. Washington, DC: National Cancer Institute, 1985;69:1–3.
11. National Library of Medicine. List of serials indexed for online users. Available from URL: [accessed March 23, 2010].
12. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Available from: URL: [accessed March 23, 2010].

Copyright and Permissions
© 2016 American Cancer Society. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, except as permitted under section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the publisher, or authorization through the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the base fee of $10.00 per copy is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA, ISSN 0008-543X/09/$10.00.

For authorization for other kinds of copying, contact Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River St., Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774, USA. Telephone: (201) 748-6011; Facsimile: (201) 748-6008; E-mail:

Communications to the Publisher
For business inquiries, subscription information, orders, or subscriber changes of address, contact John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River St., Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774, USA; or call (201) 748-6995 (toll-free 1-800-511-3989); Fax: (201) 748-6021; E-mail: